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Doctrine of Karman in Jain Philosophy

PREFACE TO THE GERMAN EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
The contents of first volume of the Karmagranthas.
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
TRANSLATOR'S NOTE
  INTRODUCTION
  THE KARMAN IN ITSELF
  THE KARMAN IN THEIR RELATION TO THE SOUL AND TO ONE ANOTHER
  THE QUALITIES OF THE SOUL
  STATES OF EXISTENCE AND CLASSES OF BEINGS
  THE CAUSES OF THE KARMAN AND THE MEANS FOR ITS ANNIHILATION
  THE WAY OF SALVATION
  THE 14 GUNASTHANAKAS
  THE STATE OF THE RELEASED

THE 14 GUNASTHANAKAS


 

 

mithyadrsti-gunasthanas

sasvadana-samyagdrsti-gunasthana

samyagmithyadrsti-gunasthana

avirata-samyagdrsti-gunasthana

desavirata-samyagdrsti-gunasthana

pramatta-samyata-gunasthana

apramatta-samyata-gunasthana

apurvakarana-gunasthana

anivrtti-badara-samparaya-gunasthana

suksma-samparaya-gunasthana

upasanta-kasaya-vitaraga-chadmastha-gunasthana

ksina-kasaya-vitaraga-chadmastha-gunasthana

sayogi-kevali-gunasthana

ayogi-kevali-gunasthana

 

Explanation of the gunasthanas Kg. I, 56a, Ps. 40 seq., Lp. III, 1131 seq., duration Ps. 181 seq.; marganasthanas Kg. I, 81b seq., Ps. 100; upayoga Kg. I, 147a Ps. 90; yoga Kg. I, 145b, Ps. 88; lesya Kg. I, 148b ; jivasthanas Kg. I, 97b; bandhahetavah Kg. I, 151a seq.; bandha. udaya. satta Kg. 63a seq. II, 168b seq.

 

All that has previously been said will be recapitulated and amplified in the following analysis of the gunasthanas. We see once more the different species of jivas in their dependence upon karman, and in their states and qualities produced thereby; we follow the manner in which, by degrees, they deliver themselves from the fatal effects of matter and accompany them up to the moment of their complete liberation from karman. The procedure followed in the description of the different stages corresponds to that followed in the description of the forms of the existence. I commence with a short characteristic of each state and continue with a survey of the upayogas, yogas, lesyas, as well as of the species of belief and conduct, which are possible in being who are in the respective gunasthanas. Thereafter follows a survey of the causes of binding and of the karmans which can exist in this stage in bandha, udaya, satta, as well as of those which are eliminated when the gunasthana is left. In most of the cases I could restrict myself to a simple enumeration, as the Kgs. only seldom offer arguments, and where this happens, the reason generally follows from the definition of the respective karman. With regard to that which will be said concerning satta, I must observe that I confine myself only to the most important. Still many other possibilities are suggesting themselves here (e.g. that someone possesses already ksayika-samyaktva and then ascends the upasama-sreni) which the reader can easily find or himself. About the sthiti-, rasa- and pradesa-bandha, I need not make any detailed statements, as the little that the Kgs. offer concerning their maximum and minimum, follows from the principle explained in chapter II, 2-4. I only recall the fact that in the gunasthanas which lie beyond the cutting of the "knot", a sthiti above sagaropamantahkotikotis cannot be bound, and that with the elimination of the kasayas the binding of sthiti and rasa ceases entirely:" the passionless one binds only momentary karman which is without intensity (comp. Tattv. II,5).

 

Mithyadrsti - Gunasthana

The characteristic mark of this 1st gunasthana is unbelief, the declining of the truths of Jainism. "But why is this stage called a stage of virtue, as the virtues (guna) of the soul, viz. knowledge, belief and conduct, are absent?" "Because in every jiva these exist at least to a minimum extent, however much they might be darkened through the karman; for if this should be lacking to a jiva, he would be no jiva." But, if now in every being the samyaktva, although only in the smallest measure, is existing, why does one then speak of "mithyadrstis"? "Mithyadrstis are those in whom, on account of the realization of the mithyatva-mohaniya-karman, the true belief does not manifest itself, those who find no pleasure in the truth of salvation taught by the sublime Arhat. But as long as someone does not accept even one of the words spoken by the Jina, he is a mithyadrsti (comp. Kg. I, 56b).

 

The abhavyas and the bhavyas who by reason of unfavorable conditions do not reach salvation, remain eternally in this gunasthana; with them it is without beginning and without end. With the other bhavyas this gunasthana has no beginning, but an end which comes sooner or later. With the one who fell from a higher stage and sank back into unbelief, it has a beginning and an end; the duration of the stay in it amounts then in the minimum to a fraction of a muhurta, in the maximum to something less than one-half of a pudgalaparavarta,

cognition: mati-, sruta-ajnana, vibhanga-jnana; caksur-, acaksur-darsana.

activity : 13, i.e. all except aharaka- and aharaka-misra-kaya-yoga.

lesyas : all 6.

belief : unbelief.

conduct : avirati.

cause of bondage: 55, i.e. all except aharaka- and aharaka-misra-kaya-yoga.

bandha : 117 prakrtis, i.e. all 120 except the translocation-body and its limbs and tirthakara.

udaya and udirana: 117 prakrtis i.e. all 122 except the translocation-body and its limbs, tirthakara, mixed belief and samyaktva.

satta : all 148.

 

Table of Bandha Udaya Satta of ks
1. Jnanavarana 5   5    5   
2. Darsanavarana 9   4, 5              9
3. Vedaniya 1   1   2
4. Mohaniya     22   7 e, 8 de, 9cde, 10      28, 26, 27
5. Ayus 1   1     1, 2
6.
7. Gotra       1   1   1, 2
8. Antaraya     


                                

It is not necessary to give a table of bandha, udaya and satta of nama-karman in this gunasthana, as all karman-combinations in which the above-mentioned 3 or 5 karma-prakrtis do not occur in bandha or udaya, are possible. In satta the combination indicated by an asterisk are not possible.

 

Beyond this gunasthana, the following prakrtis have no more bandha, udaya and udirana:

bandha: unbelief, 3rd sex, infernal state, anupurvi, ayus; 1-, 2-,3-, 4-sensed class of beings, 6th figure, 6th firmness of the joints, warm splendor, undeveloped, common, fine, immovable body.

 

udaya and udirana: unbelief, warm splendor, undeveloped, common, fine body.