VI. SAPTATIKA (SATTARIYA).
1. List of contents
(115b); 2. bandha-, udaya-, satta-, mula-prakrti-sthanas (116a); 3-5.
their samvedha in guna- and jiva-sthanas (118b); 6. explanation of
uttara-prakrtis (120b); 7. bandha-, udaya- satta-sthanas of the
uttara-prakrtis of jnanavarana,- and antaraya-k. (127b); 8-9. of
darsanavarana (128a); 10 of vedaniya, ayus, gotra (130a); 11-24 of
mohaniya (132a); 25-33 of naman (143a); 34-39. the same in the jivasthanas
(158b); 40-52. in gunasthanas (168b); 53-55. in marganasthanas (189b);
56-58. udirana (194b); 59-63. bandha in gunasthanas (195b); 64. bandha in
gatis (197b); 65. upasama-sreni (198a). 66-72. ksapaka-sreni (205b); 73.
salvation (212b); 74-75. epilogue (213a).
The task of the
Karmagranthas is to expose completely a dogma but not to prove it. That is
why we find in them a full enumeration of the different kinds of the
karman, of the states of the soul, the degrees of their development, etc.
but we do not hear why any of this is thus and not otherwise. I am aware
of one passage only wherein the author deliberately raises the question
concerning the cause. It is contained in Kgs. II., 75 a; herein the author
raises an objection as to how it is possible that the particle of matter
seized in a moment by the soul is capable of transforming itself into the
number of particles necessary for the formation of the various species of
the karman, whereupon he replies that it is performed through the
mysterious power of the soul, of which we may not make to ourselves any
idea, and through the peculiar quality of the matter itself. It may be
observed, he argues, that matter on which no spiritual force is working,
is changing into clouds and rainbows; why, then, could not matter with
which a jiva is in connection be changed into different kinds of karman?
All further discussion is cut off by an energetic "alam vistarena". The
disregard of national argumentation here shown is justified in so far as
Jainism does not pretend to have attained its doctrines by human rational
means. It is not through the limited comprehension of an average man that
Jainism arrives at its view-point of the world, but by revelation, or
better, by that which an omniscient man, a kevalin, has communicated.
Everything that such a Master, adorned with 18 characteristics 2,
proclaims concerning world and life is accepted unconditionally as Truth
that nothing can shake. All Jain scriptures, therefore, only undertake to
recapitulate the utterances of such a man, to explain them, and, if
necessary, to supplement them. This supplementing is done by the
restricted agency of the human understanding; the interpreters are
consequently fully aware of their own imperfection, and point out, over
and over again, that they are liable to err, for the reason that the Truth
is only revealed to the omniscient ones,-never-the less, this fact in no
way deters them from opposing people who arrive at other conclusions.
In working up the
material I have been governed by the desire to be as concise as possible.
I have discarded all that is not in direct connection with the subject,
that is to say, all the discursive matter which is interwoven in the text
and the commentaries. Further, I have not taken into consideration all the
views of the different teachers excepting only opinions expressed in the
text itself. Although several things have been abbreviated or omitted, I
hope that nothing of importance has been lost to view. If in many
instances and in manifold regard the text provided too much for our
necessities, on the other hand, in many respects, it supplied too little.
In order to present a general view of the world of ideas connected with
the karman doctrine, I felt myself compelled to supplement the missing
points by drawing upon other works, chiefly the Tattvarthadhigamasutra and
the Lokaprkasa. This applies especially to the introduction and to
chapters V., VI. 2, VII. 1, which, although probably affording scarcely
anything new to the specialist in Jain Philosophy, will not be
unacceptable to other readers.
Of the books published in
European languages, two only have been of prominent use to me. The first
is the series of lectures on Karman Philosophy, delivered by the late Mr.
Virchand R. Gandhi in London, and which were subsequently published from
notes made by Mr. H.Warren. This excellent work would undoubtedly have
become an exhaustive manual had Gandhi not been overtaken by death before
its completion. Thus his work remains a torso, and treats of a small part
only of the karman system proper, namely the doctrine of the karmaprakrtis
and the first five gunasthanas; but notwithstanding its incomplete form,
it has been of great value to me. The other work to which I have referred
is Professor H. Jacobi's German translation of the Tattvarthadhigama-Sutra,
the only book on Jain dogmatics hitherto translated into a European
languages. The rendering of numerous termini technici is due to it, and to
it likewise I owe many observations contributing essentially to an
understanding of the subject.
In conclusion, I feel
myself bound to acknowledge the kindly aid and information supplied to me
by those whose names follow: Mr. Hemchand Amerchand (Bombay), Dr. A.
Guerinot (Paris), Jagmandar Lal Jaini, M.A.2 (Bankripore), Dr. Willbald
Kirfel (Bonn), Pandit F.K.Lalan (Bombay), Vakil Keshavlal P. Mody, B.A.,
LL.B 3 (Ahmedabad), Dr. Walther Schubring (Berlin), Dr. F.W. Thomas
(London) and Mr. Herbert Warren (London).
I must reserve till the
last my special expression of gratitude to my revered teacher, the
celebrated Jaindarsanadivakara, Herr Geheimrat Professor Dr. Jacobi, who
inspired me to undertake this work and who, by his advise and
encouragement, has aided me in its accomplishment.
Dr. HELMUTH VON GLASENAPP.