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Sub-Categories of Passions

Doctrine of Karman in Jain Philosophy

PREFACE TO THE GERMAN EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
The contents of first volume of the Karmagranthas.
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
TRANSLATOR'S NOTE
  INTRODUCTION
  THE KARMAN IN ITSELF
  THE KARMAN IN THEIR RELATION TO THE SOUL AND TO ONE ANOTHER
  THE QUALITIES OF THE SOUL
  STATES OF EXISTENCE AND CLASSES OF BEINGS
  THE CAUSES OF THE KARMAN AND THE MEANS FOR ITS ANNIHILATION
  THE WAY OF SALVATION
  THE 14 GUNASTHANAKAS
  THE STATE OF THE RELEASED

THE KARMAN IN ITSELF


 

 

VEDANIYA-KARMAN

The vedaniya-k causes the feeling of pain and pleasure. It has, therefore, 2 sub-species:

 

1.   sata-vedaniya-k which causes a feeling of pleasure, created, e.g. by licking something sweet,

2.   asata-vedaniya-k which causes the feeling of pain, such as is produced, e.g. if one is hurt by a sword.

 

With gods and men the sata-vedaniya is predominant, although, also with the former at the time of the downfall from the celestial world, and with the latter through cold and heat, death and accident, pain can be produced. Animals and infernal beings experience chiefly the asata-vedaniya, although, also, at the birth of a Jina or on a similar occasion, they can experience a feeling of pleasure.

 

MOHANIYA-KARMAN.

The mohaniya-k obstructs true faith and right conduct. It is therefore separated into 2 main divisions: disturbance of faith and disturbance of conduct.

 

Darsana-mohaniya-karman

The darsana-mohaniya-k causes a disturbance of the knowledge of the religious truth inherent in the jiva by natural disposition. (Here "darsana" is employed in another sense than in its application as darsanavarana, see p.7). According as to whether the disturbance is an absolute or a partial one, 3 kinds of this k are to be distinguished:

1.   mithyatva-k. This causes complete unbelief or heterodoxy. If it realize itself, the jiva does not believe in the truths as proclaimed by Mahavira; he believes false prophets to be saints and enjoins false doctrines.

 

2.   samyagmithyatva-(misra)k. This produces a mixed belief, i.e., If it operates the soul waves to and for betwixt true and false; it is indifferent to the religion of the Jina and has no predilection for, nor hatred against it.

 

3.   samyaktva-k. This induces the correct belief. This samyaktva is, however, not the correct faith in its completeness, but only in a preliminary degree; it is a so-called mithyatva, from which the mithyatva-quality has been abstracted a mithyatva free from poison (Kg. I.35a, 113a). The true belief in its perfection is only obtained, when the atoms of the samyaktva-mohaniya-k have disappeared, even as milk which is covered by quite clear water only becomes perfectly pure after the water has been poured off.

 

caritra-mohaniya-karman.

The caritra-mohaniya-k disturbs the right conduct possessed innately by the jiva; it hinders the soul from acting according to the religious prescriptions. The disturbance of the conduct is produced through the 16 passions (kasaya), the 6 non-passions (nokasaya) and the 3 sexes (veda).

 

A) The kasayas (passions) are:

1)   krodha, anger,

2)   maya, deceitfulness,

3)   mana, pride,

4)   lobha, greed.

 

Each of these is separated into 4 sub-divisions, according to the intensity of their manifestation. Each passion is, there

 

I.   anantanubandhin "of life-long duration". It then completely hinders belief and conduct.

II.  apratyakhyanavarana "hindering non-renunciation". It makes impossible every renunciation, but allows the existence of true belief. It lasts for one year.

III. pratyakhyanavarana "hindering renunciation". It hinders the beginning of complete self-discipline, but does not prevent the existence of true belief and partial self-discipline (desavirati). Its effect lasts for 4 months.

IV.  samjvalana "flaming up". It allows complete self-discipline, yet works against the attainment of complete right conduct (yathakhyata caritra). It lasts a fortnight.

 

The degrees of strength of the kasayas are illustrated by examples. The 4 species of anger are to be likened unto a line drawn in stone, in earth, in dust and in water. The first can only be removed with great effort, each following one always more easily. Likewise also, the life-long enduring anger is only combated in its effect with exceeding strength and difficulty, whist the effect of the three remaining species accordingly diminishes in power and can, therefore, also more easily be destroyed. The degrees of pride are to be likened unto a pillar of stone, a bone, a piece of wood, and the liana of a Dalbergia ougeinensis; the inflexibility correspondingly decreases. The species of deceitfulness are to be compared to a bamboo-root, the horn of a ram, the urine of a cow, and a piece of wood. The crookedness of each of these is removed more easily than in the one preceding it. (The zig-zag line of the cow's urine disappears through the influence of wind and weather.) The degrees of greed correspond to scarlet color, to greater or smaller dirt, and to a spot of turmeric, which soil a garment: the scarlet is hardly removable, the dirt with more or less trouble, and the spot of turmeric can be removed with ease.

 

B) The nokasayas (non-passions) are:

1)   hasya, laughing, joking. firmed prejudicial disliking.

2)   rati, improper and confirmed prejudicial liking.

3)   arati, improper and conduct

4)   soka, sorrow.

5)   bhaya, fear.

6)   jugupsa, disgust.

 

All these 6 emotions are caritra-mohaniyas, because the soul which is subjected to them, is hindered through them in the practice of right conduct. The mere sensation of pain and pleasure has not this retarding effect ; that is why one must distinguish between the vedaniyas and the nokasayas.