Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

Doctrine of Karman in Jain Philosophy

PREFACE TO THE GERMAN EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
The contents of first volume of the Karmagranthas.
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp




C) The vedas.

Also the sex-passion hinders the jiva from obeying the laws and from practicing self-discipline. It is of three-fold variety, according to the three species of sexes.


1)   purusa-veda, the male sex and corresponding sex-passion. Through this, in the man the desire for union with a female is produced, in the same way that through the phlegm desire for something sour is awakened. It is like a straw-fire; as with the burning go grass the fire blazes and soon becomes extinguished, so also man has at first an exceedingly strong desire, which disappears as soon as his lust is satisfied.


2)   stri-veda, the female sex and corresponding sex-passion. Through this, in a woman the desire for union with a man is excited, as through the bile the desire for something sweet. It is like the burning of dung; as the dung-hill only glimmers so long as it is covered, but through violent shaking grows into a continually greater conflagration, so also the desire in the woman is weak so long as she is untouched, but grows into immensity through the enjoyment of intercourse.


3)   napumsaka-veda, the third sex and corresponding sex-passion. To the third sex belong all those beings who have no sexual organs. The sexual desire is with them exceedingly strong., because it is directed towards men and women. The effect of the napumsaka-veda therefore corresponds to that of bile and phlegm, which together produce the desire for majjika=marjika, probably=marjita, curdled milk with sugar and spices (?) Or, it is to be compared to the burning of a town, which lasts long and finds no satisfaction.


All caritra-mohaniyas are produced through corresponding karmans. Caritra-mohaniya-karman has accordingly 25 uttara-prakrtis, the mula-prakrti mohaniya-k in all 28 uttara-prakrtis.



The ayus-k confers on a being a certain quantum of life in one of the 4 states of existence. One therefore distinguishes:


1)   deva-ayus, the celestial ayus,

2)   manusya-ayus, the human ayus,

3)   tiryag-ayus, the animal ayus,

4)   naraka-ayus, the infernal ayus.


The ayus-k bestows a certain quantity of life, but not a definite number of years of life. For, as with a sponge, the quantity of water that it absorbs is determined, but not the time it takes to leave it, so also the quantum of life is determined, but not the time occupied in its consumption. The word ayus would, therefore, be approximately interpreted by "quantity of life", "quantity of vitality" ; but it is better to leave it untranslated as a terminus techniques. The ayus of the new existence is always bound during the life immediately preceding it, especially in the 3rd, 9th, or 27th part or within the last 48 minutes of it (Lp. III, 88)



The nama-k causes the individual diversities of the jivas. It is divided into 93 uttara-prakrtis, which are mostly quoted in a definitely fixed succession in 4 groups (pinda-prakrtis, pratyeka-prakrtis, trasadasaka, sthavara-dasaka). They are the following:


The 65 pinda-prakrtis.

4 States of Existence.

1)   deva-gati-nama-k bestows the celestial state of existence,

2)   manusya-gati-n-k bestows the human state of existence,

3)   tiryag-gati-n-k bestows the animal state of existence,

4)   naraka-gati-n-k bestows the infernal state of existence.


5 Classes of Beings.

5)   ekendriya-jati-n-k causes birth as a being with 1 sense,

6)   dvindriya-jati-n-k causes birth as a being with 2 senses,

7)   trindriya-jati-n-k causes birth as a being with 3 senses,

8)   caturindriya-jati-n-k causes birth as being with 4 senses,

9)   pancendriya-jati-n-k causes birth as a being with 5 senses.


5 Bodies.

10)  audarika-sarira-n-k gives the gross physical body peculiar to animals and men.

11)  vaikriya-sarira-n-k gives the transformation body which consists of fine matter, a body that changes in form and dimension. This body exists by nature in gods, infernal beings and certain animals; men can attain it through higher perfection.

12)  aharaka-sarira-n-k gives the translocation body. This body consists of good and pure substance and is without active and passive resistance. It is created for a short time by an apramatta-samyata-ascetic, in order to seek for information concerning intricate dogmatic questions from an arhat who is in another part of the world, whilst his own physical body remains in its original place.

13)  taijasa-sarira-n-k gives the fiery body. This body consists of fire-pudgalas and serves for the digestion of swallowed food. It can also be used by ascetics to burn other beings or things.

14)  karmana-sarira-n-k gives the karman-body. This body is the receptacle for karman-matter. It changes every moment, because new karman is continually assimilated by the soul and the already existing one consumed. Accompanied by it, the jiva at death leaves his other bodies and betakes himself to the place of his new birth, where the karman-body then forms the basis of the newly produced other bodies.


Of these 5 bodies each succeeding one is finer than the one preceding it, but contains more material points than it; it is therefore denser (Tattv. II, 38, 39). Every samsarin is always connected with a fiery and a karman-body, but can, in addition, still possess one or two other bodies.


3 Chief and Secondary Parts of the Bodies.

The angopanga-n-ks cause the origin of the chief parts of the bodies (arms, legs, back, breast, belly, head) and their limbs (fingers etc.). The fiery and the karman-body have no parts; that is why there are only


3 angopanga-n-ks, namely:

15)  audarika-angopanga-n-k which produces the chief and secondary parts of the physical body,

16)  vaikriya-angopanga-n-k which produces the chief and secondary parts of the transformation body,

17)  aharaka-angopanga-n-k which produces the chief and secondary parts of the translocation body.


5 Bindings.

The bandhana-n-ks produce that the newly seized pudgalas of a body are united with those formerly assimilated ones of it into an organic entity, as wooden sticks through an adhesive substance. According to the 5 bodies there are 5 binding-ks:

18.  Audarika-bandhana-n-k procures the binding of the physical body.

19.  vaikriya-bandhana-n-k procures the binding of the transformation body.

20.  aharaka-bandhana-n-k procures the binding of the translocation body.

21.  taijasa-bandhana-n-k procures the binding of the fiery body.

22.  karmana-bandhana-n-k procures the binding of the karman body.


Instead of 5 bandhanas some adopt 15, by not only taking into consideration the binding of the single parts of the body to one another, but also the binding of the parts of one body with one or two others (e.g. audarika-taijasa-karmana-bandhana). This division plays no role in the system, and therefore needs no notice here.


5 samghatanas.

The samghatana-n-ks cause the pudgalas of the different bodies to bind one another ; they scrape them together as a rake (dantalin), gathers together grass that is scattered about. According to the 5 bodies there are 5 samghatana-n-ks.

23)  audarika-samghatana-n-k procures the flocking together of the pudgalas of the physical body.

24)  vaikriya-samghatana-n-k procures the flocking together of the pudgalas of the transformation body.

25)  aharaka-samghatana-n-k procures the flocking together of the pudgalas of the translocation body.

26)  taijasa-samghatana-n-k procures the flocking together of the pudgalas of the fiery body.

27)  karmana-samghatana-n-k procures the flocking together of the pudgalas of the karman-body.


6 Firmness of the joints.

The samhanana-n-k unites the bones of the physical body with one another. According to the firmness of the joining, 6 karmans are to be distinguished, which produce a more or less strong joining of the joints:

28)  vajra-rsabha-naraca-samhanana-n-k gives an excellent joining. The two bones are hooked into one another; through the joining a tack (vajra) is hammered; and the whole is surrounded by a bandage.

29)  rsabha-naraca-samhanana-n-k gives a joining not so firm as the preceding one, because the tack is missing.

30)  naraca-samhanan-n-k gives a joining which is still weaker, because the bandage is missing.

31)  ardha-naraca-samhanana-n-k gives a joining which is on one side like the preceding one, whilst on the other the bones are simply pressed together and nailed.

32)  kilika-samhanana-n-k gives a weak joining, by which the bones are merely pressed together and nailed.

33)  sevarta-(or chedaprstha-)samhanana-n-k gives quite a weak joining, by which the ends of the bones only touch one another.


The samhananas play a great role in Jain dogmatics. Only the first four make a meditation possible (Tattv. IX, 27); only the best i.e., the 1st joining of the joints, permits the highest kind of concentration which precedes salvation.