C) The vedas.
Also the sex-passion
hinders the jiva from obeying the laws and from practicing
self-discipline. It is of three-fold variety, according to the three
species of sexes.
the male sex and corresponding sex-passion. Through this, in the man the
desire for union with a female is produced, in the same way that through
the phlegm desire for something sour is awakened. It is like a straw-fire;
as with the burning go grass the fire blazes and soon becomes
extinguished, so also man has at first an exceedingly strong desire, which
disappears as soon as his lust is satisfied.
2) stri-veda, the female
sex and corresponding sex-passion. Through this, in a woman the desire for
union with a man is excited, as through the bile the desire for something
sweet. It is like the burning of dung; as the dung-hill only glimmers so
long as it is covered, but through violent shaking grows into a
continually greater conflagration, so also the desire in the woman is weak
so long as she is untouched, but grows into immensity through the
enjoyment of intercourse.
3) napumsaka-veda, the
third sex and corresponding sex-passion. To the third sex belong all those
beings who have no sexual organs. The sexual desire is with them
exceedingly strong., because it is directed towards men and women. The
effect of the napumsaka-veda therefore corresponds to that of bile and
phlegm, which together produce the desire for majjika=marjika, probably=marjita,
curdled milk with sugar and spices (?) Or, it is to be compared to the
burning of a town, which lasts long and finds no satisfaction.
All caritra-mohaniyas are
produced through corresponding karmans. Caritra-mohaniya-karman has
accordingly 25 uttara-prakrtis, the mula-prakrti mohaniya-k in all 28
The ayus-k confers on a
being a certain quantum of life in one of the 4 states of existence. One
the celestial ayus,
2) manusya-ayus, the
3) tiryag-ayus, the
4) naraka-ayus, the
The ayus-k bestows a
certain quantity of life, but not a definite number of years of life. For,
as with a sponge, the quantity of water that it absorbs is determined, but
not the time it takes to leave it, so also the quantum of life is
determined, but not the time occupied in its consumption. The word ayus
would, therefore, be approximately interpreted by "quantity of life",
"quantity of vitality" ; but it is better to leave it untranslated as a
terminus techniques. The ayus of the new existence is always bound during
the life immediately preceding it, especially in the 3rd, 9th, or 27th
part or within the last 48 minutes of it (Lp. III, 88)
The nama-k causes the
individual diversities of the jivas. It is divided into 93 uttara-prakrtis,
which are mostly quoted in a definitely fixed succession in 4 groups (pinda-prakrtis,
pratyeka-prakrtis, trasadasaka, sthavara-dasaka). They are the following:
The 65 pinda-prakrtis.
4 States of Existence.
bestows the celestial state of existence,
bestows the human state of existence,
bestows the animal state of existence,
bestows the infernal state of existence.
5 Classes of Beings.
causes birth as a being with 1 sense,
causes birth as a being with 2 senses,
causes birth as a being with 3 senses,
causes birth as being with 4 senses,
causes birth as a being with 5 senses.
gives the gross physical body peculiar to animals and men.
gives the transformation body which consists of fine matter, a body that
changes in form and dimension. This body exists by nature in gods,
infernal beings and certain animals; men can attain it through higher
gives the translocation body. This body consists of good and pure
substance and is without active and passive resistance. It is created for
a short time by an apramatta-samyata-ascetic, in order to seek for
information concerning intricate dogmatic questions from an arhat who is
in another part of the world, whilst his own physical body remains in its
gives the fiery body. This body consists of fire-pudgalas and serves for
the digestion of swallowed food. It can also be used by ascetics to burn
other beings or things.
gives the karman-body. This body is the receptacle for karman-matter. It
changes every moment, because new karman is continually assimilated by the
soul and the already existing one consumed. Accompanied by it, the jiva at
death leaves his other bodies and betakes himself to the place of his new
birth, where the karman-body then forms the basis of the newly produced
Of these 5 bodies each
succeeding one is finer than the one preceding it, but contains more
material points than it; it is therefore denser (Tattv. II, 38, 39). Every
samsarin is always connected with a fiery and a karman-body, but can, in
addition, still possess one or two other bodies.
3 Chief and Secondary
Parts of the Bodies.
The angopanga-n-ks cause
the origin of the chief parts of the bodies (arms, legs, back, breast,
belly, head) and their limbs (fingers etc.). The fiery and the karman-body
have no parts; that is why there are only
3 angopanga-n-ks, namely:
which produces the chief and secondary parts of the physical body,
which produces the chief and secondary parts of the transformation body,
which produces the chief and secondary parts of the translocation body.
The bandhana-n-ks produce
that the newly seized pudgalas of a body are united with those formerly
assimilated ones of it into an organic entity, as wooden sticks through an
adhesive substance. According to the 5 bodies there are 5 binding-ks:
procures the binding of the physical body.
procures the binding of the transformation body.
procures the binding of the translocation body.
procures the binding of the fiery body.
procures the binding of the karman body.
Instead of 5 bandhanas
some adopt 15, by not only taking into consideration the binding of the
single parts of the body to one another, but also the binding of the parts
of one body with one or two others (e.g. audarika-taijasa-karmana-bandhana).
This division plays no role in the system, and therefore needs no notice
The samghatana-n-ks cause
the pudgalas of the different bodies to bind one another ; they scrape
them together as a rake (dantalin), gathers together grass that is
scattered about. According to the 5 bodies there are 5 samghatana-n-ks.
procures the flocking together of the pudgalas of the physical body.
procures the flocking together of the pudgalas of the transformation body.
procures the flocking together of the pudgalas of the translocation body.
procures the flocking together of the pudgalas of the fiery body.
procures the flocking together of the pudgalas of the karman-body.
6 Firmness of the joints.
The samhanana-n-k unites
the bones of the physical body with one another. According to the firmness
of the joining, 6 karmans are to be distinguished, which produce a more or
less strong joining of the joints:
gives an excellent joining. The two bones are hooked into one another;
through the joining a tack (vajra) is hammered; and the whole is
surrounded by a bandage.
gives a joining not so firm as the preceding one, because the tack is
gives a joining which is still weaker, because the bandage is missing.
gives a joining which is on one side like the preceding one, whilst on the
other the bones are simply pressed together and nailed.
gives a weak joining, by which the bones are merely pressed together and
chedaprstha-)samhanana-n-k gives quite a weak joining, by which the ends
of the bones only touch one another.
The samhananas play a
great role in Jain dogmatics. Only the first four make a meditation
possible (Tattv. IX, 27); only the best i.e., the 1st joining of the
joints, permits the highest kind of concentration which precedes