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Doctrine of Karman in Jain Philosophy

PREFACE TO THE GERMAN EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
The contents of first volume of the Karmagranthas.
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
TRANSLATOR'S NOTE
  INTRODUCTION
  THE KARMAN IN ITSELF
  THE KARMAN IN THEIR RELATION TO THE SOUL AND TO ONE ANOTHER
  THE QUALITIES OF THE SOUL
  STATES OF EXISTENCE AND CLASSES OF BEINGS
  THE CAUSES OF THE KARMAN AND THE MEANS FOR ITS ANNIHILATION
  THE WAY OF SALVATION
  THE 14 GUNASTHANAKAS
  THE STATE OF THE RELEASED

THE KARMAN IN ITSELF


 

 

The following table gives the highest and the lowest sthiti of each karman. In it the following abbreviations are employed: k = koti, kk = kotakoti, po = palyopama, so = sagaropama. The Sanskrit word "antar" e.g. in antarmuhurta" a space of time within 48 minutes", i.e. less than 48 minutes, is expressed by the sign <.

    Maximum  Minimum
Veilings of knowledge .... 30 kkso                   < 1 muhurta
II 4 Veilings of undifferentiated            
cognition    ..   .. ..                           30 kkso                   < 1 muhurta
5 Sleeps      ..   ..   ..                       30 kkso                   3/7 so
III Sensation of pleasure..       15 kkso                   12 muhurta
Sensation of pain   ..   ..                   30 kkso                   3/7 so
IV Unbelief       ..   ..   ..                      70 kkso                   1 so
12 Passions    ..   ..  ..                      40 kkso                   4/7 so
Up‑flaming anger   ..   ..                   40 kkso                   2 masa
Up‑flaming pride   ..   ..                    40 kkso                   1 masa
Up‑flaming deceitfulness ..               40 kkso                   1 paksa
UP‑flaming greed    ..   ..                  40 kkso                   < 1 muhurta
joking, liking ..   ..   ..                       10 kkso                   1/7 so
disliking, sorrow, fear, disgust          20 kkso                   2/7 so
male sex       ..   ..   ..                       10 kkso                   8 years
female  sex    ..   ..   ..                      15 kkso                   3/14 so
third sex      ..   ..   ..                        20 kkso                   2/7 so
V infernal ayus  ..   ..   ..                     33 so          10,000 years
animal ayus    ..   ..   ..                      3 so                        256 avalikas
human ayus     ..   ..   ..                     3 so                        256 avalikas
celestial ayus ..   ..   ..                       33 so                       10,000 years
VI infernal state of existence   20 kkso                   2000/7 po
animal state of existence..     20 kkso                   2/7 so
human state of existence ..   15 kkso                   3/14 so

Comp. Prof. Jacobi's notes to Tattv. IV 15. Utsarpini is a period of time at the beginning of which the moral etc. state of the world is very bad, but gradually improves till at the end of that period the culminating point of the good state is reached. Thereupon, immediately follows the avasarpini which beings with the best state and ends with the worst. Utsarpini and avasarpini follow one another in endless succession. Palyopama, sagaropama, pudgalaparavarta are explicitly explained in Kg I 163b et seq., II 83a et seq. The entire doctrine of time is minutely treated in Lp sarga 28 et seq. See also F. O. Schrader "Uber denstand der indischen Philosophie zu zeit Mahaviras und Buddhas" (p.61) and W.Kirfel, "Die Kosmographie der Inder" p.337 et seq.

    Maximum      Minimum
  celestial state of existence  10 kkso                   2000/7 po                   
1‑sensed class of beings      20 kkso                    2/7 so
2‑3‑4 sensed class of beings  18 kkso  9/35 so
5‑sensed class of beings      20 kkso                   2/7 so
physical, fiery, karman body  20 kkso                   2/7 so
transformation body ..   ..                 20 kkso                   2000/7 po
translocation body  ..   ..   < 1 kkso                  < 1 kkso
1. firmness (of the joints)                 
and figure  ..   ..   ..   10 kkso                   1/7 so
2. firmness (of the joints)                 
and figure  ..   ..   ..  12 kkso                   6/35 so
3. firmness (of the joints)                 
and figure  ..   ..   14 kkso                   7/35 so
4. firmness (of the joints)                 
and figure  ..   ..   .. 16 kkso                   8/35 so
5. firmness (of the joints)
and figure  ..   ..   .. 18 kkso                   9/35 so
6. firmness (of the joints)                 
and figure  ..   ..   ..   20 kkso                   2/7 so
black color   ..   ..   .. 20 kkso  2/7 so
green color   ..   ..  .. 17 1/2 kkso             2/7 so
red color     ..   ..   ..  15 kkso                   2/7 so
yellow color  ..   ..   ..   12 1/2 kkso             2/7 so
white color   ..   ..   .. 10 kkso                   1/7 so
pleasant odor ..   ..   ..  10 kkso                   1/7 so
unpleasant odor    ..   .. 20 kkso                   2/7 so
bitter taste   ..   ..   ..  20 kkso                   2/7 so
biting taste   ..   ..   .. 17 1/2 kkso             2/7 so
astringent taste    ..   .. 15 kkso                   2/7 so
sour taste     ..   ..   ..   12 1/2 kkso             2/7 so
sweet taste    ..   ..   ..   10 kkso                   1/7 so
heavy, rough, cold, dry (touch)    20 kkso        2/7 so
light, smooth, warm, adhesive  10 kkso                   1/7 so
infernal anupurvi   ..   ..     20 kkso                   2000/7 po
animal anupurvi     ..   ..   20 kkso                   2/7 so
human anupurvi ..   ..   ..   15 kkso                   3/14 so
celestial anupurvi  ..   .. 10 kkso                   2000/7 po
pleasant gait  ..   ..   .. 10 kkso                   1/7 so
unpleasant gait     ..   .. 20 kkso                   2/7 so
annihilation of others, breath ing,
warm splendor, cold 
luster, "not heavy‑not       
light"    ..   ..   ..   ..   20 kkso                   2/7 so
tirthakara     ..   ..   ..   < 1 kkso                  < 1 kkso
formation, self‑annihilation                20 kkso                   2/7 so
movable, gross, developed,  

individual (body)..  ..  

20 kkso                   2/7 so
firm, beautiful, sympathetic              
melodious, suggestive    ..                 10 kkso                   1/7 so
fame      ..   ..   ..   ..   10 kkso                   8 muhurta
fine, common, undeveloped     18 kkso  9/35 so
flexible, ugly, unsympathetic,     
immovable, ill‑sounding,
unsuggestive, shame      .. 20 kkso                   2/7 so
VII  high family surroundings 10 kkso                   8 muhurta
low family surroundings  .. 20 kkso                   2/7 so
VIII 5 hindrances   ..   ..   ..   30 kkso                   < 1 muhurta


The duration of the nama-ks viz. limbs, binding, samghatana is equivalent to that of the respective body-ks. The unequal length of the minimum durations depends upon the disappearing of the ks in the gunasthanas (see below). With most of the ks, the minimum duration is arrived at by dividing the maximum sthiti of the k in question by the maximum sthiti of unbelief. There are, however, many exceptions to this.