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Doctrine of Karman in Jain Philosophy

PREFACE TO THE GERMAN EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
The contents of first volume of the Karmagranthas.
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION by Dr. Helmuth von Glasenapp
TRANSLATOR'S NOTE
  INTRODUCTION
  THE KARMAN IN ITSELF
  THE KARMAN IN THEIR RELATION TO THE SOUL AND TO ONE ANOTHER
  THE QUALITIES OF THE SOUL
  STATES OF EXISTENCE AND CLASSES OF BEINGS
  THE CAUSES OF THE KARMAN AND THE MEANS FOR ITS ANNIHILATION
  THE WAY OF SALVATION
  THE 14 GUNASTHANAKAS
  THE STATE OF THE RELEASED

THE KARMAN IN THEIR RELATION TO THE SOUL AND TO ONE ANOTHER


 

 

Bandha, udaya, satta

Udirana

Apavartana and Udvartana

Samkrama


BANDHA, UDAYA, SATTA

(Kg. II, 127b seq., Ps. 1223 seq.)

 

Bandha "bondage" is called the assimilation of the matter penetrated into the jiva in the form of certain karman-species. (abhinava-kammaggahanam bandho, Kg. I, 63a; bandho nama karmaparamanunam atmapradesaih saha vahnyayahpindavad anyo'nyanugamah Kg. II, 115b).

 

Udaya "realization" is the becoming manifest of the effects of the karman in due time. (karmapudgalanam yathasvasthitibaddhanam udayasamayapraptanam yad vipakena-'nubhavanena vedanam sa udaya ucyate Kg. I, 69a; karmaparamanunam eva vipakapraptanam anubhavanam udayah Kg. II, 115b).

 

Satta is the existing in potentia of the karmans, from the moment of the assimilation to the moment of the realization or some other elimination. (satta kammana thii bandhailaddhattalabhanam Kg. I, 75a; bandhasamayat samkramena-'tmalabhasamayad va arabhya yavat te karmaparamanavo na-nyatra samkramyante, yavad va na ksayam upagacchanti tavat tesam svasvarupena yah sadbhavah sa satta Kg. II, 115b).

 

 

In the following I give a summary of the bandha- udaya- and satta-sthanas of the 8 karman-species, i.e. to show which uttara-prakrtis of a mula-prakrti exist side by side in bandha, or udaya or satta. The aim of these explanations is two-fold. Firstly, the understanding of the effect of the different karma-prakrtis is essentially promoted, and, secondly, through this procedure I am capable considerably to curtail what is to be said later on concerning the jivasthanas and gunasthanas. The different counting of the karmans in bandha, udaya and satta has already been pointed out.

 

Jnana-avarana.

All 5 uttara-prakrtis are always simultaneously bound. It is therefore not possible to bind only one or two of the veilings of knowledge, but, as long as the mula-prakrti can altogether be bound, the 5 uttara-prakrtis of them must be bound. All 5 species are likewise always jointly existing in udaya as well as in satta. II.

 

Darsana-avarana.

Three combinations are possible with bandha and satta, namely:

9 uttara-prakrtis, i.e., all kinds of veiling of undifferentiated cognition.

6 (i.e.) the preceding ones without nidranidra, pracalapracala and styanardhi.

4 (i.e.) the preceding ones without nidra and pracala, that is to say, the 4 proper veilings of undifferentiated cognition alone, without the different species of unconsciousness.

 

Two combinations are, however, only possible at udaya, namely:

 

4 uttara-prakrtis, i.e. the above-mentioned proper veilings of undifferentiated cognition.

5. (i.e.) the former and one of the 5 kinds of unconsciousness of the physio-psychological conditions of sleep, intensive sleep etc. More than one cannot realize itself at one time.

 

Vedaniya.

Sata and asata exclude one another; only one of them, therefore, can be bound, and only one of them can realize itself. In satta, however, both of them exist until such time as one of them is annihilated (in the penultimate samaya of the 14th gunasthana).

 

Mohaniya.

Ten combinations are possible at bandha, namely:

1 uttara-prakrti = flaming-up greed.

2 = flaming-up greed + deceitfulness.

3 = flaming-up greed + deceitfulness + pride.

4 = flaming-up greed + deceitfulness + pride + anger.

5 = 4 flaming-up passions + male sex.

9 = 4 flaming-up passions + male sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow) + fear + disgust.

13 = 4 flaming-up + 4 pratyakhyanavarana passions + male sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow) + fear + disgust.

17 = flaming-up + 4 pratyakhyanavarana + 4 apratyakhyan-avarana passions + male sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow) + fear + disgust.

21 = 16 passions + male (female) sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow) + fear + disgust.

22 = unbelief + 16 passions + male (female or third) sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow) + fear + disgust.