Bandha, udaya, satta
Apavartana and Udvartana
BANDHA, UDAYA, SATTA
(Kg. II, 127b seq., Ps.
Bandha "bondage" is
called the assimilation of the matter penetrated into the jiva in the form
of certain karman-species. (abhinava-kammaggahanam bandho, Kg. I, 63a;
bandho nama karmaparamanunam atmapradesaih saha vahnyayahpindavad
anyo'nyanugamah Kg. II, 115b).
Udaya "realization" is
the becoming manifest of the effects of the karman in due time. (karmapudgalanam
yathasvasthitibaddhanam udayasamayapraptanam yad vipakena-'nubhavanena
vedanam sa udaya ucyate Kg. I, 69a; karmaparamanunam eva vipakapraptanam
anubhavanam udayah Kg. II, 115b).
Satta is the existing in
potentia of the karmans, from the moment of the assimilation to the moment
of the realization or some other elimination. (satta kammana thii
bandhailaddhattalabhanam Kg. I, 75a; bandhasamayat
samkramena-'tmalabhasamayad va arabhya yavat te karmaparamanavo na-nyatra
samkramyante, yavad va na ksayam upagacchanti tavat tesam svasvarupena yah
sadbhavah sa satta Kg. II, 115b).
In the following I give a
summary of the bandha- udaya- and satta-sthanas of the 8 karman-species,
i.e. to show which uttara-prakrtis of a mula-prakrti exist side by side in
bandha, or udaya or satta. The aim of these explanations is two-fold.
Firstly, the understanding of the effect of the different karma-prakrtis
is essentially promoted, and, secondly, through this procedure I am
capable considerably to curtail what is to be said later on concerning the
jivasthanas and gunasthanas. The different counting of the karmans in
bandha, udaya and satta has already been pointed out.
All 5 uttara-prakrtis are
always simultaneously bound. It is therefore not possible to bind only one
or two of the veilings of knowledge, but, as long as the mula-prakrti can
altogether be bound, the 5 uttara-prakrtis of them must be bound. All 5
species are likewise always jointly existing in udaya as well as in satta.
Three combinations are
possible with bandha and satta, namely:
9 uttara-prakrtis, i.e.,
all kinds of veiling of undifferentiated cognition.
6 (i.e.) the preceding
ones without nidranidra, pracalapracala and styanardhi.
4 (i.e.) the preceding
ones without nidra and pracala, that is to say, the 4 proper veilings of
undifferentiated cognition alone, without the different species of
Two combinations are,
however, only possible at udaya, namely:
4 uttara-prakrtis, i.e.
the above-mentioned proper veilings of undifferentiated cognition.
5. (i.e.) the former and
one of the 5 kinds of unconsciousness of the physio-psychological
conditions of sleep, intensive sleep etc. More than one cannot realize
itself at one time.
Sata and asata exclude
one another; only one of them, therefore, can be bound, and only one of
them can realize itself. In satta, however, both of them exist until such
time as one of them is annihilated (in the penultimate samaya of the 14th
Ten combinations are possible at bandha,
1 uttara-prakrti =
2 = flaming-up greed +
3 = flaming-up greed +
deceitfulness + pride.
4 = flaming-up greed +
deceitfulness + pride + anger.
5 = 4 flaming-up passions
+ male sex.
9 = 4 flaming-up passions
+ male sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow) + fear + disgust.
13 = 4 flaming-up + 4
pratyakhyanavarana passions + male sex + joking and liking (disliking and
sorrow) + fear + disgust.
17 = flaming-up + 4
pratyakhyanavarana + 4 apratyakhyan-avarana passions + male sex + joking
and liking (disliking and sorrow) + fear + disgust.
21 = 16 passions + male
(female) sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow) + fear + disgust.
22 = unbelief + 16
passions + male (female or third) sex + joking and liking (disliking and
sorrow) + fear + disgust.