The activity of the fiery
body is not specially counted, because the latter is always connected with
The activity is least in
the lowest animated beings (the suksmani-godas); it augments with the
always ascending organization.
The multiplicity of
activity grows also with the class of beings: the developed suksma-nigoda
has only audarika-kaya-yoga, whilst in the thinking being with 5 senses
all 15 yogas can occur. In order to hinder the bandha of bad karman, the
activity of the body, speech and thinking organ must be regulated. If
through continual self-control (samyama) the state of holiness is finally
reached and through extinction of the antaraya-karmans the absolute virya
has been attained, then at first the grosser, and later on the finer
activity of body, speech and manas is excluded. The holy man has then
become an ayogi-kevalin, and possesses henceforth, into all eternity, the
infinite virya, bound to no organ, completely withdrawn from the influence
Kg. I 92b, 95a, 101b et
seq., 112b, 155b; Ps. 27; Lp. III. 284 et seq., XXXVI, 54 JS. II 196 et
According to the moral
value of their activity-and corresponding also to the kind of karman which
they bind-the jivas can be divided into 6 categories. The first is
characterized by the possession of the greatest sinfulness, whilst each
following one improves, and the last is finally standing in the state of
the highest attainable purity. The appertainment to one of these 6 classes
shows itself in the soul externally: the soul which is free by nature from
all distinctions perceptible by the senses, receives color, smell, taste
and touch; in short, it becomes a defined type, which distinguishes it
from other souls-although in a manner not recognizable by our senses. This
type of soul is called lesya.
The different lesyas are
distinguished according to the colors which they give to the souls, as
2) nila dark,
3) kapota gray,
4) tejas fiery-red.
5) padma lotus-pink.
6) sukla white.
The nature of the lesyas
is explained by two parables:
Six men see a Jambu-tree,
full of ripe fruit. They want to eat the fruit but the climbing-up is
perilous to life. They reflect therefore as to how they can obtain
possession of the jambus. The first proposes to hew down the tree from the
root. The 2nd advises merely to cut down the boughs, the 3rd recommends to
cut off only the branches, the 4th to cut off only the bunches. The 5th
wants only gather and eat the fruit fallen to the ground. Here the first
has a black, the 2nd a dark, the 3rd a gray, the 4th a fiery, the 5th a
lotus-pink, the 6th a white lesya.
The second parable tells
of 6 robbers who want to surprise a village. The 1st robber wants to kill
all beings, quadrupeds and bipeds ; the 2nd only human beings; the 3rd
only men; the 4th only those armed; the 5th only those who fight. The 6th
advises to take away only the treasures, but not to murder anybody. The
explanation of this parable is similar to that of the last.
The possessors of the
lesyas are described (Kg. I, 93) in the following manner:
The hostile, pitiless,
cruel, barbarous, impious man, who has a bad tongue and who takes pleasure
in torturing other beings, has a black lesya.
corruptible, inconstant, hypocritical, voluptuous man has a dark lesya.
The thoughtless one, who
in all his actions does not weigh the evil and the wrathful, has a gray
The prudent man who stops
the influx of new karman, the liberal honorable one, who has a friendly
mind towards religion, has a fiery lesya.
bountiful, steady, intelligent one has a lotus-pink lesya.
The pious man who
performs good deeds, is passionless and impartial, has a white lesya.
emotions are only the fundamental tendencies of the soul; in every lesya
there are different degrees of intensity to be distinguished. We must
therefore not be astonished, if we see later, that the worst lesyas are
still occurring in very high states of psychical development, when partial
or complete self-discipline have already been attained. The lesyas
characterize only the general tendency of a soul, without the described
passions necessarily being exhibited in such a pronounced manner.
Finally, it is still
worth mentioning that a being at its birth has in the beginning the lesya
which it possessed at its death in the preceding existence ("jallese marai
tallese uvavajjai" Kg. I, 117b); later on, the lesya can change.
The holy men have no more
yoga, and the Siddhas have no lesya.
Kg. I, 112b et seq., P.
27; Lp. III, 596 et seq.; Tattv. I, 2 et seq.
True belief is the
unshakable conviction of the absolute truth of the doctrines of the Jain
religion. The samyag-darsana is an essential quality of the jiva. In
consequence of the assimilation of mohaniya-karman, true belief has
completely disappeared; if the karman is hindered in its efficiency in
smaller or greater measure, true belief appears in a smaller or greater
dimension; if the karman is completely annihilated, the absolute true
belief manifests itself in its completeness.
From complete unbelief to
complete true belief 6 kinds of belief are possible:
the non-belief in the doctrine of Mahavira and the belief in false
doctrines. There are 5 species of it (Kg. I, 149 a ; Gandhi 54):
I. abhigrahika, produced
by believing a certain false doctrine to be true.
produced without acceptance of a certain false doctrine, by apathy and
III. abhinivesika produced
by obstinate predilection for something which is estimated to be false.
IV. samsayika produced by
V. anabhoga "caused by
deficient judgment", i.e. by the incapability of accepting the truth.
VI. sasvadana-samyaktva "a
taste of the true belief". This is a feeling of the true belief, lasting
only for a few moments, which soon gives place to unbelief. The name is
explained in the following manner:
2) A man who does not
know that he has eaten milk-rice tastes it distinctly in the moment he
returns it by vomiting. Thus also a man whose confused mind is directed
towards unbelief, feels a momentary taste of the true belief when he spits
3) samyagmithyatva "mixed
belief" undifferentiated acceptance of true and false. This kind of belief
is also called misra.
4) ksayopasamika or
vedaka samyaktva "lower right belief". This is produced by the poisonless
mithyatva-pudgalas being left (nirvalita-madana-kodravarupam mithyatvam
5) aupasamika samyaktva,
true belief produced by the suppression of the karman which caused
disturbance of belief.
6) ksayika samyaktva,
true belief produced by absolute annihilation of the karman which causes
disturbance of belief.
Kg. I, 107a et seq;
Jacobi ad Tattv. IX 18; JS. II 157; W. Schubring ad Kalpasutra VI 14.
If the jiva is free the
influence of the caritra-mohaniya-karmans, he possesses completely pure
conduct. The anantanubandhin and apratyakhyanavarana-kasayas however,
hinder it completely, and make every self-discipline (samyama or virati)
altogether impossible; so long as they operate, the jiva is in the state
of avirati. The deficient self-discipline refers to the objects of the 5
senses and of the manas and to the injuring of the 4 species of elementary
beings, of plants and of beings with movable bodies, (and) is therefore 0f
If the two worst kinds of
passions are eliminated, the jiva possesses partial self-discipline (desavirati).
This manifests itself chiefly in the evidence of killing movable beings.
(See Gandhi p. 116).
If also the
pratyakhyanavarana-kasayas have been made ineffective, complete
self-discipline (sarva-virati), i.e. right conduct, is produced, 5 degrees
of caritra are distinguished:
the conduct in the primary stage of self-control.
2) chedopasthapana, the
conduct of the monk in the beginning of his spiritual career.
3) pariharavisuddhi, the
conduct produced by special austerities.
4) suksmansamparaya, the
conduct in which the passions are manifesting themselves at the utmost in
a subtle form.
5) yathakhyata, the
absolutely perfect conduct which is produced when all passions have been