That time too, the Aagamas remained
unwritten. Variations in the version were therefore bound to occur.
Ultimately one more convention was held at Valabhipur in 454 A.D. under
the leadership Devardhigani Khshamashraman. Authorized version of all the
Aagam as (Presumably 84) was prepared at that convention and they were for
the first time written down. With the passage of time some of the Aagamas
got lost and some got destroyed during Muslim invasions. At present
following 45 Aagamas are available that are acceptable to Shwetambar
Murtipujak sect:- 11 Angas(The 12th one lost long back), 12
Upangas, 4 Mul Sutras, 6 Chhed Sutras, 10 Misc. and 2 Chulikas.
Digambars started writing their text
of Aagamas on the basis of knowledge at their command. Acharyas Dharsen
and Gundhar who happened to be in the line of Bhadrabahuswami, were very
knowledgeable. Their successors prepared the Shatkhandagam, Gomatasar,
Labdhisar etc. that are collectively known as Pratham Shrut Skandha or the
first collection of scriptures.
This could have occurred some time
after the Patliputra convention. During the second century A.D. the most
venerable Kundkunacharya wrote Samayasar, Pravachanasar, Niyamasar,
Panchastikaya, Ashtapahud etc. which are known as Dwitiya Shrut Skandha or
seco nd collection of scriptures. His Samayasar, Pravachanasar and
Panchastikaya are held in high esteem even by Non-Digamabars. Digambar
saints accept these works as the most authentic Jain Aagamas and most of
the subsequent Digamabar literature is based on t hem. In about 200 A.D.
Hon�ble Umaswati wrote his Tattwarthasutra giving the entire essence of
Jainism in Sanskrit language. Luckily this book happens to be acceptable
to all the sects of Jainism. This shows that despite the outward
differences, there is no disputes among them about any of its
fundamentals. Several learned commentaries have been written on this book
by many Acharyas of both the denominations.
Subsequent well known author is
Hon�ble Siddhasen Diwakar who lived during the time of Vikramaditya. He
seems to have written on many aspects of Jainism. His Sanmatitark is
considered a masterly book and is enthusiastically studied by scholars
even at pre sent. Sarvartha Siddhi of Pujyapadswami in 5th or 6th
century and Shaddarshan Samucchaya and Yoga Drishti Samucchaya of Acharya
Haribhadrasuri in 8th century are the major works after the
compilations of Aagamas. By that time idol worship was firmly estab lished
and many temples were set up. This necessitated the help of well versed
persons for consecrating the idols and for performance of various rituals.
In Shwetambar sect this led to the rise of renegade monks known as Yatis.
They used to stay in the te mples and therefore came to be known as
Chaityavasis. They lived in affluence and availed of all the comforts of
life. Haribhadrasuri was the first to castigate their excesses. The evil
however seems to have continued long after that.
Noteworthy works after this period are
Mahapuran of Digambar Acharya Jinsen (770-850) and Trishashti Shalaka
Purush of Hemchandracharya (1088-1173). Both these works are voluminous
and deal with the lives of Tirthankaras and other illustrious
personalities . Serious efforts were made to curtail the excesses of Yatis
in 11th century by Vardhamansuri. This was continued by his
successors Jineshwarsuri and Jindattasuri. The latter is popularly known
as Dada. He founded Kharatar Gacchha meaning purer sect in about 1150. The
excesses Yati however seems to have survived that onslaught.
So far we have talked about
contribution of well known Acharyas. Now we come to the contribution of a
householder. He was Lonkashah of Ahmedabad. He could not believe that the
excesses of Yatis could have religious sanction. Scriptures were however
not a ccessible to householders. Luckily, a monk once happened to see the
neat handwriting of Lonkashah. He therefore entrusted the latter to make
copies of scriptures. While doing that Lonkashah also prepared copies for
himself and studied them carefully. Equi pped with that knowledge he came
out with a heavy hand against Chaityavasis in 1451. Based on his study of
Aagamas, he also disputed idol worship as being against original Jain
tenets. This was preamble to setting up Sthanakwasi sect which came into
being as non-idol worshippers in 1474. Bhanajimuni was the first known
Muni of that sect. Shwetambar sect was thus divided into two sub-sects.
This division was however helpful in dealing death blow to the evils of
Yatis. Sthanakwasis introduced strict code o f conduct for their monks in
contrast to Chaitywasis.
Hirvijayasuri was the well known
Acharya of the next century. He seems to have impressed even emperor
Akabar who issued proclamation forbidding animal slaughter on certain
days. Poet Banarasidas also lived during that period. He was born in a
Shwetambar f amily and was an easy going youth. He however happened to
read Samayasar and was very much impressed. He has written SamayasarNatak
which is a dramatic version of Samayasar. The next two well known
personalities are Yogi Ananadghanji and Upadhyaya Yashovi jayaji. The real
name of the former was Labhanandji. Since he remained more absorbed in the
nature of soul, he is popularly known as Anandghanji. He has written many
thought provoking Padas. The most well known is his Ananadghan Chovisi
that contains devo tional songs in admiration of all the 24 Tirthankaras.
Upadhyaya Yashovijayaji was a prolific writer. He has written on almost
every aspect of Jainism in Sanskrit, Prakrit and Gujarati languages. Soon
after that Acharya Bhikshu split the Sthanakvasi sect in 1727 on the issue
of role of charities etc. in Jainism. The new sect that was set up is
known as Terapanthi sect.
The last one to be mentioned is
Shrimad Rajchandraji who was born in 1868. He was a highly gifted person.
He could heavily impress even Mahatma Gandhi, who considered Shrimad as
his guide. He has compiled many devotional songs and has written at length
ab out the true nature of soul in the form of letters. Most of his
writings is in Gujarati language. Mokshamala and Atmasiddhishastra are his
outshining independent publications that have influenced lot of people. He
had plans to propound the true Jainism af resh. Unfortunately however he
did not survive long and left the mortal body in 1901 at the young age of