Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
  THE NATURE OF KARMA (Karma ka swroop)
  Vairagya Bhavana





As a result of the foregoing discussion, it may be stated that Asrava always signifies the influx of matter into the substance of the soul, and that the soul remains subject to it so long as the rhythm of life remains slackened by the attitude of receptivity,. This is due to the influence of desires for material thing, for the soul is perfection itself in its natural purity, but the entertainment of desires leads it to depend on the objects thereof, throwing it into an attitude of expectancy and uneasiness. Pure intelligence by nature, the Jiva is affected by its beliefs, so that the expectation of joy, comfort or help from outside itself instantly impairs its natural buoyancy and strength. It is this condition of expectancy, which may be called receptivity or negativity. This harmful attitude, as stated before, is forced on the soul in consequence of its desires for intercourse with, and traffic in, matter from which it expects to derive pleasure, or joy, in some form or other. In reality, however, the soul is perfect and blissful by nature, so that its desires for the enjoyment of matter only betray its ignorance of its own true natural perfection. Thus, any kind of activity, physical, mental or moral, is a cause of Asrava, no exception being made even in the case of actions performed carelessly, since they point to the presence of an attitude of carelessness which is quite incompatible with self-consciousness.


The causes of Asrava may now be enumerated categorically. They are:--


     (1) Mithyatv, i.e., wrong belief or faith

     (2) Avirati, i.e. moral failings,

     (3) Pramad, i.e., negligent conduct, or lack of control,

     (4) Kashaya, or passions, and

     (5) Yoga, or the general channels of inflow.


Of these, the first class consists of five kinds of mithyatv, namely,


(i) One-sided absolutism, which insists on the absolute accuracy of knowledge obtained from one point of view alone;


(ii) Untrue attribution of a quality to a being or thing;


(iii) Entertainment of doubt about the truth;


(iv) Failure to distinguish between right and wrong; and


(v) The notion that all religions are equally true.


The second division includes:


(i) Hinsa, that is, injuring another by thought, word or deed,

(ii) Falsehood or perjury,

(iii) Theft,

(iv) No chastity, and

(v) Attachment to things of the world.


The third category comprises:


(i) Reprehensible discourse about the king, state, women and food,

(ii) Sense-gratification,

(iii) Mild kind of passions,

(iv) Sleep, and

(v) Gossip.


The kasha's include four different types of anger, pride, deceitfulness and greed, and nine minor blemishes (no- kasayas), namely, joking, attachment or live, aversion or hatred, grief, fear, disgust and the three kinds of sexual passion peculiar to the three sexes, the male, the female and the neuter. The four types of kasayas are:


(1) Anantanubandhi, i.e., that which prevents one's acquiring the right faith and stand in the way of true discernment;


(2) Apratyakhyana, or that which prevents the observance of even the minor vows of a house-holder;


(3) Pratyakhyana, which interferes with the observance of the vrata (vows) enjoined on a monk; and


(4) Sanjvalana, which is of a mild nature, and the last obstacle to the absolute purity of Right Conduct.


Yoga, which means a channel for the inflow of matter, is of three kinds--


(i) Manoyoga, that is, mental activity, or thought,

(ii) Kayayoga, or bodily actions, and

(iii) Vachanayoga, i.e., speech.


These are the main causes of Asrava, and, although the

subheads in this classification may be divided still further, it would serve no useful purpose to describe their minute sub-division here.