Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
PREFACE
FORWARD
INTRODUCTION
SAPTABHANGI SYSTEM
THE TATTVAS
  THE NATURE OF KARMA (Karma ka swroop)
  ASRAVA
  BANDHA
  SAMVARA
  NIRJARA
  MOKSHA
  STAGES ON THE PATH - GUNASTHANAS
  DHARMA IN PRACTICE
  COMPARATIVE ANTIQUITY OF JAINISM
  SOUL-SUBSTANCE
  Vairagya Bhavana

SAMVARA


 

 

     

(xi) Bodhidurlabha Bhavana --'Difficult is it to acquire the human form; having acquired it, it is difficult to know the truth, having known the truth, it is difficult to have faith in it; having acquired faith in the truth, difficult it is to practice it; therefore no opportunity should be lost in the acquisition of the Three Jewels (Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct).

 

(xii) Dharma Bhavana --'Dharma (religion) without mercy is but a form of Mithyatva (falsehood); Dharma is the reflection of divine effulgence of the Atma; without Dharma Moksha (freedom) cannot be attained; true Dharma is the source of life and joy to all living beings; Dharma, therefore, must be observed in all things.'

 

 

5. The endurance, with equanimity and cheerfulness, of the twenty-two forms of hardship (parisaha) consequent on (i) hunger, (ii) thirst, (iii) cold, (iv) heat, (v) insect-bite, (vi) nakedness, (vii) disagreeable surroundings (viii) love for the opposite sex, (ix) pain arising from the duty to be moving about, (x) discomfort caused by the observance of rules as regards sitting or lodging in certain kinds of places, (xi) suffering due to the observance of regulations concerning sleeping, (xii) abuse, (xiii) ill-treatment, (xiv) begging, (xv) disappointment from getting no alms, (xvi) disease, (xvii) thorn pricks, (xviii) bodily dirt and impurities, (xix) disrespect shown by men, (xx) pride of learning, (xxi) persistence of ignorance, and (xxii) the existence of causes which tend to interfere with faith.

 

6. Right conduct which includes:

     (a) Five kinds of spiritual purity

       (i) Equanimity,

       (ii)      Penalties for faults arising from inadvertence, or negligence on account of which one loses equanimity,

       (iii) Refraining from Hinsa,

       (iv) Control of passions, and

       (v) Contemplation of one's own Atma; and,

     (b) Observance of vows Ahimsa, truthfulness, non-stealing, celibacy and non-attachment to the objects of senses.

 

     In connection with Samvara, it is important to note that a full acquaintance with the subject of Asrava is necessary to avoid confusion of thought, in reference to the determination of the rules of proper conduct. We have already dealt with this subject in a general way in the fourth chapter, but as it is of Parmaount importance to be acquainted with the special causes of specific karmas, we shall enter into a more detailed description of them here.

     

To begin with the group of karmas known as the Jnana varaniya, we notice that the energies which fall under this head are all those which are characterized by the property of offering obstruction to knowledge. Their causes, therefore, must be such as have a tendency to obliterate existing knowledge or to obstruct the acquisition of truth. Analysis of these causes would show them to fall under two different heads, namely, the endeavor to hold back, conceal or evade truth, and non-exertion in the right direction for its acquisition. The former comprise all those tendencies of mind which aim at obscuring the real point in issue by evasion, perversion, subterfuge, mysticism, false interpretation, hypocrisy deceitfulness, misplaced subtlety, and the like; and the latter, such traits as physical laziness which prevent study and the acquisition of truth. According to the Jaina Siddhanta the following amongst others, are the main causes of the Jnana varaniya type of karmas:

 

     (1) Maintaining silence born of resentment of hatred, in the presence of one who is imparting true knowledge;

     (2) Knowing the truth and yet excusing oneself, when questioned on the plea of ignorance;

     (3) Withholding truth under the apprehension that the questioner would become equally wise;

     (4) Interfering with the advancement of truth and learning, or preventing the acquisition of knowledge;

     (5) Condemning the truth when propounded by another;

     (6) Finding fault with truth in self;

     (7) Laziness;

     (8) Indifference to truth;

     (9) Disrespectful attitude towards the Scripture of truth;

     (10) Pride of learning;

     (11) Teaching or preaching falsehood;

     (12) Running down the truly wise; and

     (13) A general encouragement of falsehood.

 

     There are many other such causes, which the reader will have no difficulty in ascertaining for himself. As regards the three higher forms of knowledge, the Avadhi, the Manahparyava and the Kevala jnana, they are obstructed by lack of inner concentration of mind due to sensual lust, passions, worry, and the like, since they arise in the consciousness of advanced Munis (ascetic saints), who become established in the contemplation of the Atma.

 

     The specific causes of the darsana varaniya group of karmic forces are those which interfere with the different kinds of perceptive faculties. Kevala darsana is the natural function of Jiva dravya, and arises from the destruction of the Ghatia karmas. The causes, which obstruct its manifestation, therefore, are all those that give rise to the Ghatia karmas. The same is the case, to some extent, with Avadhi darsana (clairvoyant vision) which also arises from a partial destruction of evil karmas. Hence, anger, pride deceit and greed, which deprive the soul of mental serenity and lead to worry and disquietude of mind, are directly the causes of the obstruction of these two kinds of darsana (perception).

     

Turning to Chaksu darsana (vision), its development and functioning are generally prevented by the malformation of the eyes or visual centers of the brain. In either case, it is the clogging of some part of the organic structure which is responsible for the total or partial destruction of vision, while the clogging itself is due to the lodgment of particles of matter in a place where they should not be. Improper exercise of the function of vision; such as pretending not to see, affecting disgust at the sight of a being or thing, especially when he or it happens to be an object of worship and veneration, and other like deeds which throw the organs of vision into an unnatural strained or crooked attitude, and there by allow the incoming particles of matter to find a lodgment in a place not intended for them, are the main causes of a total or partial absence of vision. Besides these, the influence of 'suggestion' as a general psychological cause of malformation is not to be ignored, and many cases are reported in the records of psychical research in which the sight of painful wounds and the like has occasioned similar conditions in the beholders thereof. Hence, acts such as pulling out the eye-balls of another from their sockets, and then feeling delight at the unhappy condition of the victim of one's fiendish tyranny, are also calculated to deprive one of vision. Delighting in interfering with another's beholding a Jaina saint, preventing him from having access to an object of worship, such as Scripture, from motives of hatred and the like, are also causes which lead to the loss of vision in a subsequent re-birth, and, may be, in this very life.

 

     Similar considerations also govern Achaksu darsana, which means perception with the help of the remaining four senses other than sight.

 

     As regards the different kinds of sleep, it is to be observed that sleep is consistent with the nature of soul, which is pure consciousness or intelligence, but is forced on it in consequences of its union with matter. Hence when the soul's union with matter becomes less overpowering in nature, as happens in the case of true Munis (ascetic saints) sleep, somnolence and all other forms of stupor which are matters of daily experience to all spiritually undeveloped souls, lose their hold on the Jiva.

 

     The causes of the different forms of stupor and sleep are various; they are caused by mental worry, passions, and like, and also by foods which augment somnolence, laziness and lethargy of body or mind.

 

     We now come to the third group of karmic energies, known as Vedaniya. Bearing in mind what has been said about the power of suggestion and the negative attitude of the soul in connection with the other kinds of karmas, it can be readily seen that the causes which give rise to the experiences of pleasure and pain must be as follows:

 

     (a) In the case of pleasurable feelings sympathy, gift (of four kinds, viz., of medicine, food, 'protection' and knowledge), piety, renunciation, purity of mind, speech and body, mercy, tranquillity and like, and

 

     (b) In the case of unhappy experiences, the causing of pain to others and also to one's own self, grief, vain regrets, weeping, and also causing others to weep, killing or injuring others or oneself, back-biting, abusing, hard- heartedness, terrorizing and all those other forms of action which are opposed to the causes enumerated under the preceding head.