Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

The doubt regarding the existence of the soul

Dont Despair: Remember Soul
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Shri Amar Muni

4. It is all right if a jiva gets a small or less comfortable or less auspicious body by the decrease of punya, but how did such heavy and inauspicious bodies as those of elephants or large fish or of the inhabitants of hell appear? If there is only a small quantity of gold, we may get a small vessel but it is of gold; not of clay.

5. In this manner, the difficulty arises in the case of those who believe only in papa By the increase of papa sorrows may increase, and by its decrease sorrows may decrease; but how can pleasure increase? A small degree of sin may be the cause of sorrow, but not of joy. Let poison be of a small quanity, it cannot increase the health of the body.

The belief that punya and papa are combined is false

6. There is no karma like a combined punya and papa, because there is no cause that can create such a karma. As the cause of karma, we can consider the auspicious or inauspicious mental, physical and vocal yoga activities. Mithyatva etc. is contained in the inauspicious yoga. But at a time yoga of only one kind, either an auspicious one or an inauspicious one is present, and by this only one kind of bondage either of punya or of papa takes place.

Dravya-Yoga: Bhava-Yoga; Dravya Bhava-Yoga is not mixed

Question: Do we not see the mixed auspicious and inauspicious yogas? For example, a thought or preaching of rendering charity arose,. but over-passing the scriptural method and scriptural formality; or worshipping the paramatma but not according to scriptural method. Are not these respectively auspicious and inauspicious Manoyoga, vag-yoga and kaya-yoga (mental, vocal and physical activities).

Answer: No. Yoga is of two kinds: Dravya-Yoga and Bhava-Yoga The 'Dravya' means helpful substances causing yoga and the activities of the mind, the voice, and the body. These are the dravya-yoga The Adhyavasaya (good or bad sentiments) which is the nature of yoga is the Bhava-Yoga According to the vyavahara-naya (normal vision) there can be a fusion i.e., a mixture of the auspicious and the inauspicious ones in the dravya-yoga; but not according to the nischaya-naya (subtle vision). Because in the Bhava-Yoga there is no such fusion mixture i.e. combination of auspicious and inauspicious sentiments (Adhyavasaya). Whereas here there can be only auspicious or inauspicious adhyvasaya. There can never be such an Adhyavasaya which is of both auspicious and inauspicious nature at the same time. In the scriptures (Agamas) are shown two auspicious meditations viz., dharma- dhyana and shukla-dhydna; and the auspicious lesyas (mental states viz., Tejo lesya, padma lesya and shukla lesya). Two inauspicious meditations arta-dhyana and raudra-dhyana, and three inauspicious lesyas (mental states) krisna-lesya nil- lesya and kapot-lesya, are also described but no auspicious and inauspicious combined meditation or lesya is mentioned. Even after the meditation, lesya prevails. The Bhava-yoga is made up of lesya and meditation. It is not in the form of both auspicious and inauspicious together. Therefore no bondage in the form of combined punya and papa occurs.

There are no mixed karmas in samkraman of karmas. Samkraman means intermingling of old karmas into the newly being bound karmas of the same type. Just old ashata vedniya karma being intermingled in the newly being bound shata vedniya karma and getting in the form of shata vedniya karma

Question: In the karma that is auspicious and the karma that is inauspicious, there is a samkram (internal entry and intermingling). Is this intermingling not combind karma?

Answer: An auspicious karma arises from an auspicious sentiment. The previously accumulated inauspicious karmas become mingled with auspicious karma of the same sort being earned at present. In the same manner, previous auspicious karmas are mingled with present inauspicious karmas.

Question: In mithyatva mohaniya karma what is the system?

Answer: After the bondage of mithyatva karma if there occurs a pure sentiment, then this mithyatva karma gets divided into three groups. One of them is a pure group namely samyakatva- samkit mohaniya. This is pure group of Samyakatva Mohaniya. Now if jiva further again enters mithyatva, that samyakatva mohaniya gets transformed into mithyatva. In this manner, samkraman does not happen between the main basic karma prakritis just as vedniya karma is not transformed into mohaniya karma but it happens between their subordinate forms: just as from shata Vedaniya karma into 'ashate vedaniya' karma, excepting 'Aayushya karma Between darshan moha and charitra-moha karmas also 'samkraman does not happen. Now you see that with the newly bound auspicious karmas like shata Vedniya, the previously bound inauspicious karmas like ashatta vedaniya karma (Karma that create disease, agony) mingle or with the newly bound inauspicious karmas, the previous auspicious ones mingle mutually. This appears to be a mishra-karma like auspicious and inauspicious both, but after mingling there remains only one auspicious or inauspicious form, not both. The karma that mingles disappears; and the karma, with which it is mingled, remains in its form. For example when ashata form arises; it means ashata becomes shata. Therefore, there is no karma which is a fusion of punya and papa

The summary is this: punya and papa are independent karmas. If they could combine, only excessive happiness for heavenly beings and only excessive pain for the inhabitants of hell would not occur. Therefore, as the independent causes of these two are separate abundances - abundance of happiness and abundance of sorrow. So separate punya and papa are proved.

7. Moreover in this world we see three varieties good, evil and different from these two, namely neutral. But the presence of good or evil is not the absence of each other. Just as sweet, bitter and tasteless relish; it is not only that the absence of good is evil and the absence of evil is good but the absence of sweetness is tastelessnes also not sheer bitterness. Bitterness is an independent taste. If disease abates, health appears, but not the difference in state like strength. To get this strength separate medicine must be taken. In the absence of 'durjanata (ignobility) there might be sajjanata, gentleness (nobility) but not a lofty kind of nobility. One who commits serious sins earns only papa, but does not earn even a grain of punya In this manner, even one who executes a sublime deed earns a very great punya; but it is not the state that one also earns a little of papa In the same way one who commits horrible ignoble actions and evil actions, auspicious sentiments and inauspicious sentiments etc., are not the absent forms of each other, but they are independent entities. Hence their effects punya and papa also are proved to be independent.

Some necessary directions regarding punya & papa

A karma that gives good fruit like good colour, taste, smell touch, etc., is a punyakarma, and one that gives a bad fruit, is papakarma. These karmas are made up of subtle material particles named karman vargana. Therefore, they are also subtle not gross. They are also not like minute atoms, but they are in bulks.

How karma bulks stick to the soul?

They stick to the soul which is smeared with attachments and hatred, like dust sticking to the body smeared with oil. The karman particles stick to the soul, except in the middle part, which is utterly pure, containing eight minute parts called 'ruchak pradesas'. The karman particles stick to the entire soul except that soul's pure area, and except the sky occupied by it. The soul and karmas possess such mutual relation that the soul which is the support for karmas, by means of its own good or evil sentiments can originate karmas good or evil. At the same time, these four things, the nature, the duration, the intensity in fruit, and the bulk of karmas are determined. The effects differ according to differences in the 'ashraya', refuge. For example it is observed that the same water falling from sky results in the form of milk in cows, and poison in snakes. Or the same food, according to the ability to digest results (becomes converted) into flavour, blood etc. or into excretion, urine and cough. In the same manner, an auspicious or inauspicious sentiment (feeling) converts the karman particles respectively into independent good or evil karmas.

According to the 'tatvarth shastra', there are 46 karma prakritis (forms) of punya good karmas which comprise samakir-mohaniya' 'hasya, 'rati, 'pumved' in addition to 42 punya karmas like shata vedni shubha-ayushya nam-gotra (All the remaining eleven are in the form of papa karmas inauspicious karmas). Subh karma has 46 forms according to the tatvarth-shastra They include samakit mohanlya, hasya rati and pumveda in addition to 42 forms according to karma- grantha comprising shatavedaniya, shubh ayushya, shubhnam, shubhagotrta, etc. It makes a total of 46. According to the karma grantha, samkita mohaniya, hasya, rati and pumveda these four are inauspicious karmas, because they cause the jiva to think contrary and to resort to mithyatva Of these smakita mohaniya makes the jiva commit errors like doubt in about the form of tattvas, in the words of the omniscient and at the basic level it is the mithyatva karma-particle made up of karman pudgal. Hence it is the form of inauspicious karma.

This explanation given by the Bhagavan Mahavirdeo brought enlightenment of truth to Achalbhrata. He too accepted the diksa at the feet of the Bhagavan along with his 300 pupils.