Shri Amar Muni
Now let us think of the second point. "Karma arises
from attachments and hatred". This theory contains at least an element of
truth that, attachments and hatred arise out of karmas of a previous
Question: If this is so, then karmas when ripened will
show their effect of attachment and hatred, which will generate new karmas
and they too will create attachment and hatred. Thus this link will go on
but will never end, there will be no scope for Moksa--salvation.
Answer: This is not always true that internal
attachment and hatred always create karmas; otherwise none would have
attained moksa until now. Infinite souls have attained moksa.
This fact proves that attachment and hatred being more
and more controlled are one day wiped out for ever. From this, it is
concluded that the karmas when ripened, although show their internal
effect of attachment and hatred, but if externally their effects are
suppressed namely no action of anger, no abusive language etc., then those
karmas go fruitless. This shows that we can restrain our attachments and
hatred and thereby frustrate the karmas' effect, i.e. if hatred arose
towards somebody, by not spoiling facial appearance not using an abusive
language, nor hurting, or injuring others, we can avoid the bondage of new
karmas. For example, when we are angry with a person, or if we hate a
person, if we restrain our passion and if we can avoid excitement, harsh
words, and violence, we will not be gathering new karmas. A noble honest
man may develop lust for wealth, but he may restrain his greed and may not
commit theft or a dishonest activity. On the contrary, if he curses his
own attachment, he can avoid heavy karma-bondages. We can put an end to
this cycle of the continuance of karmas by studying great scriptures such
as 'Samaraditya Kevali' Maharshi Charitra and Upamiti etc., by
understanding them, by developing philosophical and spiritual awareness
and farsightedness and by restraining our attachments and hatred as far as
The third point is 'Karmas arise from previous karmas
?' So long as the soul is burdened by the mass of previous karmas, it
keeps gathering new karmas. Because,
(a) if these karmas from the time of ripening give
rise to vices like attachments, hatred and violent propensities, new
karmas do arise.
(b) Even after we expel or discard these karmas, if
our mind, body and voice given to us by karmas, continue their
movements, then we gather new karmas.
(c) In the same manner, new karmas can not stick to
the wholly independent, completely pure and formless soul, but to soul
having bondages of previous karmas stick to the soul. These vices like
violence, attachments and hatred are included in four causes for
karma-bondages viz. false faith, vowlessness, passions, sentiment of
anger etc., and sinful mental-vocal and physical activities. Now we
shall. examine the inferences regarding the existence of karmas.
The inferences regarding the existence of Karmas:
1. The first part is this:-
[gadapg 59 indian writing]
If the other external causes and circumstances are
similar, yet if two effects are different from each other, then it is
concluded that other different internal causes must be working. Without
such internal different causes, there cannot be such a difference in their
effects. For instance two works written on different times by the same
author dealing with same theme may mutually differ on account of the
difference between the internal inspiration or attitude. In this manner
for such differences as happiness and sorrow karma should be accepted as
the inward cause. The difference should not be considered on account of
outward causes such as delicious food, sandal paste, and woman etc., as
well as thorns, cold, heat, poison, etc., which bring happiness or sorrow
respectively, because on account of these very causes, some get sorrows
instead of happiness, or happiness instead of sorrows. From this, it is
evident that there is some deeper cause that regulates and brings about
happiness and sorrows and that deeper cause is karma.
(2) If there is no linking karman body between the body
of the previous birth and the body of the present birth, it means that
between the two states there existed only the connecting pure soul. If so,
owing to the pure soul how did the jiva attain a particular body in this
Question: Is it not the result of the good and evil
deeds of the previous birth?
Answer: No, it is so because a new body in the form of
an effect arises in this birth and the good and evil deeds of the previous
birth (which are the cause of present happiness and sorrow) have already
been destroyed. The rule regarding the cause and effect is this. The cause
must have existed in the previous moment of the effect. For example,
suppose we ate food but suddently afterwards due to such an eatable taken
by us, we vomitted the food, in this state why does not the body remain
strong and healthy? Can the body grow strong just because food has been
eaten? No. The body grows strong only if the food is preserved and
assimilated in the body and transformed into blood etc. Here this has not
happened because the food is vomitted. In the same manner, if we have
gathered auspicious or inauspicious karmas on account
of our good or evil deeds in the past life, these karmas accompany our
soul to the present life, then only according to these karmas the present
body of a particular form, shape etc. is being created. Thus the
karma-body is proved in between the two births.
(3)The jiva carries out such activities as charity,
celibacy etc. What is the effect of these activities? Just as farming
brings a harvest in the form of effect, benevolence, charity also must
bring an effect and that is karma (destiny, fortune).
Question: Cultivation sometimes goes futile. Is that
the case with benevolence? Does it also sometimes go futile?
Answer: It might go futile, if there is lack of other
causes, but just as cultivation is carried out with this understanding
that harvest is produced if the other necessary objects are present there,
same is the case with charity.
Question: Can't we say that mental peace is the fruit?
For instance, we get mental peace by giving alms to the deserving sages.
Answer: Yes. But even this is a mental activity. What
is its fruit?
Question: Its fruit is other good activities like
Answer: But what is the fruit of the last mental peace
occurring at the end of the life which is not followed by any good deed of
benevolence? In this case, it must be accepted that the fruit is karma or
Question: Just as the visible fruit of violence is
meat, similarly, the visible fruit of benevolence is praise, fame etc.,
but what is the need to believe in some invisible fruit? Normally in this
world, people probably indulge in carrying out such actions as would bring
an immediate visble benefit. You gave the example of cultivation. on that
basis also, it must be accepted that there is a visible fruit of
benevolence i.e. the capacity to show benevolence. When there is a visible
fruit why should we think of an invisible fruit? The visible fruit of
eating is satisfaction. The harvest is the visible fruit of cultivation.
When that is so, what is the need to believe in some invisible fruit?
Answer: Every action may not bring about a visible
fruit, yet it will surely bring about an invisible fruit. Therefore we
must believe in the invisible fruits in addition to the visible fruits of
our actions. Let the visible fruit of violence be meat but as its
invisible fruit sin must be believed in. Otherwise why are the souls
wandering in the samsar from the times immorial? Because there are many
who commit inauspicious activities such as violence, etc., many are the
souls that are experiencing sorrows and wandering in the Samsar. On the
contrary the number of those who carry out auspicious actions like charity
etc., is small and so the number of jivas that get felicity and salvation
is also small. Consequently good and evil actions are linked with
happiness and sorrows respectively. Auspicious actions bring happiness and
inauspicious actions bring sorrow, but this can happen only by the chain
Question: Many good actions like benevolence are
carried out with the intention of attaining "punya" (good luck). Let them
attain punya as the fruit of benevolence, but those who commit
inauspicious actions like violence and other sins, they cherish
inauspicious karmas as the fruit of sins. Then why should they get those
Answer : For the fruit, there is no rule of intention.
In other words, intention is not always necessary for the emergence of the
fruit. It is not always necessary that intention of the fruit must be
present there as the cause. In farming if unknowingly some seeds remain
scattered in a field, they do sprout and give a crop, even if no intention
of their fruit was cherished. Therefore, the rule is only this that where
there is a totality of the cause the effect will necessarily be created
whether there is intention or not. It is evident from normal experience
that the service rendered without ambition and expectation of any praise,
prize etc., is considered of the hightest order and gives the highest
fruit, and greatest benefit. Similarly here even though people may not
have an intention for inauspicious "karmas", violence and other vices
necessarily bring those fruits. Why should we not believe in this truth?
If auspicious or inauspicious actions do not
necessarily bring about any invisible effect, all souls would attain "moksa"
at the end of this life. If there is no karma as the invisible effect of
auspicious and inauspicious activities, how can there be after death any
future strange state of samsar roaming in various births?
Question: Let there be the invisible fruit of
auspicious activities like charity, benevolence etc., because they do not
bear a visible fruit, but why should the inauspicious activites like
violence etc., bear an invisible fruit, when they show the visible fruit
like meat etc.?
Answer: You may compromise in your mind by thinking so
and you may not believe in the invisible fruit of sinful actions, but then
this difficulty arises that those who commit only sinful actions like
violence will attain necessarily "moksa". Those who do noble deeds will
have to remain entangled in samsar to experience the invisible fruits of
their actions, because then in the new birth (next life) also they will
carry out such noble actions, due to which they will attain new auspicious
karmas and they will bring again a new future birth. Thus they will remain
entangled in the samsar. But this is merely a whim or imagination, because
as a matter fact if all the sinful people would have attained "moksa", how
is it that there are in the world at present so many people who commit
sins like violence, speaking false-hood etc.? If only benevolent people
would have remained in the world, then there would have remained only
happy people; but this is not the case in the world, because in this world
countless unhappy beings are seen. On the other hand countless beings are
seen committing sins. From this it is evident that the evil actions may
have visible fruits, but their invisible fruit is surely produced and that
is the "karma". And those who commit such sins shall have to experience
anguish as a result. In the world those who commit sins are infinite and
those who suffer agonies are also infinite. It means that sorrows are the
effects of evil actions according to mathematical equations.
Question: Those who commit such evil actions as
violence do not intend to get the invisible fruit of their inauspicious
karmas, yet they get it, and though we wish for a visible fruit of our
auspicious actions many times, we do not get it. Why?
Answer: This also is a great proof of karmas. On
account of jiva's "Kasaya" sentiments of pride, illusion, greed, anger and
"yoga" bodily vocal and mental actions, the invisible effect namely
'karma' is definitely created. Therefore, on account of actions like
violence, the invisible karmas are definitely created. Whereas the visible
fruits appear only on the ripening of the relative karmas of the previous
birth but not otherwise. On account of this reason, though people equipped
with the same sources carry on the same business, many of them do not get
the profit they desire, or there occurs a difference in the profit they
get. Though the visible sources may be the same there occurs a difference
between the fruits of happiness and sorrow. Here it must be accepted that
the reason behind this difference lies in the difference between the
previous karmas which are invisible. Here you should not say, "How
can a thing invisible work i.e. can produce anything!" because behind the
visible effect like a pot, the invisible cause like atoms are undoubtedly
accepted as working.
Question All right. Then too, are not these invisible
karmas owing to their being relative of the formless soul, proved as
formless quality of the soul?
Answer No. There is no rule, that the substance
connected with the soul always must be formless, because you see the body
though connected with the soul is not formless.
"Karma has form." This can be proved on the following
1. The effects that possess a form have causes which
possess a form, just as the atoms which are the cause of the pot, have a
form. But when the effect is formless this rule does not apply to the
case; for example, intelligence is a formless effect, but its cause
namely the soul does not possess a form. Since the effect of karmas
namely the body has a form, karmas also are proved to be possessing a
2. Due to the contact of which happiness is
experienced, that thing possesses a form. For example we feel happiness
by eating food, and food has a form. In the same manner, contact of
karma brings happiness, so it should be believed to possess a form.
3. Due to the contact of which thing pain is felt,
that thing also possesses a form. For example, by touching fire. In the
same manner, owing to the contact of certain ripened karmas pain is
experienced, so they (karmas) should be believed to have a form.
Question: Intelligence in the form of good and evil
thoughts has its effect on our health. How can that principle be applied
here because the intelligence is formless and physical health possesses a
Answer: Even there, the thoughts that cause those
effects like pleasure or pain also possess a form they having been formed
out of the Manasa vargana (mental particles ) which possess a form.
4. "Those things that are different from the soul and
from their qualities like knowledge and which are nourished by external
causes, possess a form". For instance, just as a pot gets nourished and
grows strong when it is treated with oil. In the same manner, punya
(good fortune) is nourished by good deeds and misfortune is nourished by
evil deeds. Therefore, the good fortune and misfortune have a form. In
the above said words "different from knowledge, etc." are used only
because the knowledge, even though nourished by external objects like
the teacher, books and medicinal herbs possessing a form, is formless.
5. The effect of which cause is modifiable, that
cause itself is modifiable. (Moreover, the thing karma is different from
the soul, and is modifiable so it possesses a form.) For instance, the
effect of milk is curds. If the effect curds is a modifiable thing
because it undergoes further modifications like buttermilk, butter etc.
then milk itself is a modifiable thing, and it is a substance possessing
a form. The milk which produces these effects has a form and is a
substance. In short that thing whose effect undergoes further
modifications is itself a substance possessing a form and is capable to
undergo modifications. In the same manner, the body etc. being the
effects of karmas, and being modifiable substances the karmas themselves
must be believed to be modifiable substance, undergoing modification. So
it must be possessing a form.
Question: Karma is also the effect of the soul, and it
is also a modifiable thing, so even the soul as a cause would be a
substance undergoing modification. Is it so?
Answer: You should not say so, because karma is not the
effect of the pure soul. But it is the effect of the soul bound by karmas
of a previous life, and the previous karmas are no doubt possessing form
and are modifiable. If so, the soul bound by such karmas is also in some
respect possessing a form and a modifiable thing.