Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

The Navakar Mantra

What is the Jain Dharma or Jainism?
Who is a Jin?
Who is a Jain?
The Jain dharma
  The Arrangement Of Ara, The Phases Of Time
  Tirtha, Dharma And Tirthankar (One Who Reveals The Dharma)
  The Exposition Of The Philosophy
  Bhagwan Mahavir
  The Path Of Achievement
  Total Renunciation
  Some special rules of conduct for sadhus and sadhvis
  The Dashvirati Dharma
  The Fourteen Pledges By Househl Oders
  Avashyak (The Essentials)
  Prathana (Prayer)
  Jap And Dhyan
  The Eighteen Sources Of Sin (Papa Sthanak)..
  Before assuming Dharma
  Marganusari Gun: (35 virtues that guide us on the path of life)
  Tapasya and the codes of conduct:
  The External austerities ( six kinds )
  Abhyantar Tap (Six kinds)
  Some minor and major austerities for daily practice.
  Why is fasting essential ?
  Some Special And Important Austerities
  Why should water be boiled ?
  It is necessary to filter water:
  The Jain Dharma prohibits the eating of the following things
  Why should not people eat meat ?
  Even the egg is dangerous !
  Alcoholic drinks should be renounced
  Why should we not eat certain types of food?
  We should not take food in the night. Why?
  Why should we not eat green and raw vegetables on some special days?
  Organization of the Jain Society
  Some Important Jain Institutions
  Jain Upashray: Religious Centres
  The Jain Libraries
  The Jain Schools
  Ayambil Shala
  The Jain Panjarapol--Shelter for Cattle
  The Jain Choultries
  The Jain Pilgrim Centres
  The system of the seven institutions of the Jains.
  The Jain Festivals
  The Jain Celebrations
  The Jain Philosophy
  The Nine Doctrines
  Kashay- Passions
  The Process of Spiritual Elevation,
  Samiti and Gupti
  16 Bhavanas
  The Jain Literature
  A Representative Jain Work
  A Glossary Of Difficult Words

51. The Nine Doctrines


Bhadrabahu Vijay

If we examine the point carefully, we find that the whole universe is made up of two entities. The whole universe is but a manifestation or expansion of these two principles. Those two entities are Jiva that which has life; and Ajiv that which has no life; or that which is conscious and that which is inert. All agitations and restlessness result from those two only. The Jiva is also called Atma, soul or Chetan the conscious entity. That which has no consciousness and that which has no life is called Ajiv. All the things in this universe both visible and invisible can be classified into these two kinds.

Lord Jineswar has divided all things in this universe into nine entities so that we may have a comprehensive knowledge of all of them.

(1) Jiva (living things), (2) Ajiva (Non living things) (3) Punya (Merit), (4) Pap (Sins). (5) Ashrav (Evil actions) (6) Samvar (good deeds), (7) Bandh (bondage), (8) Nirjara (Free from Karmas), (9) Moksh (Salvation).

The Jiv Tatva

The Jiva is that which grows; which decays, that which fluctuates and varies, that which eats. sleeps, is awake, acts, fears. takes rest, makes attempts for self-defense and that which can reproduce. All these qualities appear in the Jiva when it enters a physical body. These are the external features of the Jivatm�.

The inner feature of life is Chetan or consciousness. The Jain dharma believes that the soul or Jiva embodies consciousness. It goes on manifesting itself in various states, retaining its original and essential form, Gold remains as gold whatever form it may take, If a goldring is broken. out of that some other ornament can be made, but the basic substance, gold remains as gold. Only its external form changes. In the same manner, the soul remains in its original and essential form whatever external form it may assume. Only its states keep changing. Transformations keep appearing. The Jiva according to its Karmas gets into any form of the eighty lakh yonis or forms and remains in that form for a certain fixed duration. The soul when it is in Samsar (the cycle of birth and rebirth) becomes enslaved to the senses; and because of passions like attachment and hatred does good and evil deeds and it also experiences the effect of those good and evil actions.

The soul assumes the dimensions proportionate to the body and dwells in it. In accordance with the dimensions of the body, the soul also fluctuates (grows large or small). Just as time is without a beginning and an end; even the soul is without a beginning and an end and is boundless; and imperishable. The body can consume food and water; can speak and move because of the presence of the soul in it; and because for all these activities the motive force is the soul.

The Jain dharma clearly believes that the soul is conscious, formless, and animate. Awareness is the feature of consciousness. This shows itself in the form of sorrow and happiness, knowledge and self-realization. The soul is spotless and formless, The soul is neither masculine nor feminine. It is a collection or composite of countless conscious, formless entities and is formless. It has no shape. There are infinite number of souls in the universe.

The kinds of Jivas

living beings.

Ordinarily the Jivas can be divided into two categories.

(1) Mukt Atma: The soul that is bodiless and has been once for all delivered from the bondage of Karmas.

(2) Samsari Atma: (two kinds) The soul that has a body and is caught in the bondage of Karmas.

(1) Tras- Moving.

The Jivas that by their own will move and act and are of two senses; three senses; four senses and five senses come under this category called Tras.

(2) Sthavar- Unmoving.

The earth, water, fire, air and vegetation - these Jivas that cannot move and act by their will come under this category called Sthavar,

There are five kinds among the Jivas belonging to the category called Sthavar.

The following ones which have only one sense namely the sense of touch are called Ekendriyas.

Prithvikaya: Clay, sand, metal, coral, etc.

Apkaya: Water-creatures, every kind of water, ice, dew, fog, iceberg, rain etc.

Teukaya: The lives of fire, various tempests, flames, blazes, lightnings, forest-fires, hot ash etc.

Vayukaya: The lives of air. atmosphere, all kinds of wind, tempests. whirl-winds, cyclones etc.

Vanaspati Kaya: two types - Trees and plants, green plants, raw vegetables, fruits, flowers, trees, leaves, branches, seeds, etc.

Sadharan : Common - That which has a body but in which the jiva is endless. Roots like fungus - mould, etc. These are also called Anantkaya.

Pratyek : Single or separate - A single soul dwelling in a single body. A separate soul dwells in each of these things: tree, branch, skin or case, flower, leaf, seed etc.

Tras Jiv:

Do-indriya : The Jiva that has two senses They have two senses, namely, skin and tongue. Conch-shell, Cowries, germs, the microbes in stale food, the minute creatures in water, the worms that eat away wood etc.

Te-indriya : Those having three senses. These have skin, tongue and ears. Bugs, lice, white ants, ants, moths and insects in wheat centipedes etc.

Chaurindriya : Those that have skin, tongue, ears and eyes. Scorpions, beatles, locusts, house-flies, gad-flies, gnats, crickets, spiders etc.

Panchendriya : Those that have the five senses, namely, skin. tongue. ears, eyes and nose.

Narak : The jeevas of Naraka - Hell.

Tiryanch : Animals and birds that live on earth, in water; and which move in the sky.

Deva : Those jeevas that live in heaven (Devlok) .

Manushya : The jeevas that live in the form of human beings. There are two kinds among the jeevas possessing the five senses.

Sanjni Panchendriya: Creatures having a mind (Mind here means brain).

Asanjni Panchendriya - Creatures without a mind.

The six Paryapties - the six abilities.