Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

The Navakar Mantra

What is the Jain Dharma or Jainism?
Who is a Jin?
Who is a Jain?
The Jain dharma
  The Arrangement Of Ara, The Phases Of Time
  Tirtha, Dharma And Tirthankar (One Who Reveals The Dharma)
  The Exposition Of The Philosophy
  Bhagwan Mahavir
  The Path Of Achievement
  Total Renunciation
  Some special rules of conduct for sadhus and sadhvis
  The Dashvirati Dharma
  The Fourteen Pledges By Househl Oders
  Avashyak (The Essentials)
  Prathana (Prayer)
  Jap And Dhyan
  The Eighteen Sources Of Sin (Papa Sthanak)..
  Before assuming Dharma
  Marganusari Gun: (35 virtues that guide us on the path of life)
  Tapasya and the codes of conduct:
  The External austerities ( six kinds )
  Abhyantar Tap (Six kinds)
  Some minor and major austerities for daily practice.
  Why is fasting essential ?
  Some Special And Important Austerities
  Why should water be boiled ?
  It is necessary to filter water:
  The Jain Dharma prohibits the eating of the following things
  Why should not people eat meat ?
  Even the egg is dangerous !
  Alcoholic drinks should be renounced
  Why should we not eat certain types of food?
  We should not take food in the night. Why?
  Why should we not eat green and raw vegetables on some special days?
  Organization of the Jain Society
  Some Important Jain Institutions
  Jain Upashray: Religious Centres
  The Jain Libraries
  The Jain Schools
  Ayambil Shala
  The Jain Panjarapol--Shelter for Cattle
  The Jain Choultries
  The Jain Pilgrim Centres
  The system of the seven institutions of the Jains.
  The Jain Festivals
  The Jain Celebrations
  The Jain Philosophy
  The Nine Doctrines
  Kashay- Passions
  The Process of Spiritual Elevation,
  Samiti and Gupti
  16 Bhavanas
  The Jain Literature
  A Representative Jain Work
  A Glossary Of Difficult Words

51. The Nine Doctrines


Bhadrabahu Vijay

Ajiv- Lifeless things

That which does not have consciousness; which has no birth or death, which is not bound by Karma; which is not a doer; which does not experience the result of anything and which does not possess knowledge or self-realization is called Ajiva or inert or achetana, that which lacks consciousness.

The Jain philosophy has divided all lifeless things into the following categories.

(1) Dharmastikay

(2) Adharmastik�y

(3) Akash�stik�y

(4) Pudgal�stikay



Asti means Pradesh and Kay means collection; so Astik�y means a collection of Pradeshas (aspects). Before understanding these doctrines the meanings of four technical words should be known. Then, one can understand those doctrines clearly.

Skandh: It means the full form of a thing.

Desh: Some parts that are attached to the Skandh.

Pradesh: The parts that are attached to the Skandh but which are inseparable from it.

Paramanu: Extremely minute and microscopic; they are separated from the Skandh but are not visible to the naked eye.

These words are deeply connected with Astik�y. Skandh, Desh and Pradesh - these three are found equally in ail, but only in Pudgal, Paramanu, is present in a special form. In the others, the Paramanu cannot be separated. The Pradeshas of Dharma, Adharma and Ak�sh are inseparable. These three are considered to be full and inseparable.

Time is not a collection of Pradeshas, of course, time is divided into three phases, namely, the past, the present and the future. At the present, it is the present time; that too, it is present in the form of a second or a moment. Therefore, it is not a collection of Pradeshas. Hence, it is not even called Astikay.

The Jiva also is astik�y, because it is in the form of a collection of countless Pradeshas. The name dravya is given to the six i.e., Jivastikay and time. In the Jain Dharma, they are famous as Shaddravyas the six substances. Samsar the cycle of birth and rebirth is only a collection of these six dravyas We have learned something about Jiva among the shaddravyas. Now, let us have a look at the other five dravy�s.

Just as Dharma and Adharma or Shubh and Ashubh are known as propensities in general but here in the Jain philosophical terminology Dharma is Gati-sah�yak (helping movement) and Adharma is called Sthiti Sahayak (helping to stay stationary ). This conception is peculiar to the Jain Dharma.


That which helps the Jiva and Pudgals in their movement is called Dharm�stik�y. That which is called ether in science, can be called Dharm�stikay. The tendency of movement is present in all. With its help, movement occurs in Jivas and inert matter. The fish swims with the support of water. The condition of the Dharmastikay resembles that of the fish which moves with the support of water. Dharm�stikay gives support to all things that move and keep going forward.


The principle which helps in being still, in stopping; in standing, in sitting, is called Adharm�stikay. The Astik�y helps all those living and non-living things that can stand, sit; can achieve mental concentration and firmness and can experience firmness and stillness.


Akas�stikay is the name given to that substance that gives space for existence. The extent to which the Dharmastikay and Adharm�stikay are present is called Lok�k�sh. The name Alokakash is given to the vast and boundless space where those substances are not present. There are no Jivas or Pudgals or paramanu in Alokakash. There, only space exists and that is called Akashastikay.


What scientists call matter, the Jain philosophers call Pudgal. Param�nu is the minutest form of Pudgal. In the Jain philosophy. a profoundly imaginative and valuable enquiry has been carried out in respect of Pudgal First of all. the Jain philosophy has given the name Pudgal to all kinds of sounds, noises, light, shadow, darkness. None of these things gets completely destroyed at any time; and all those things firmly exist in Avakash space. The present-day scientific devices like tape recorders, record players, television, video recorders, telephone, wireless devices, electronic machines etc., not only show the validity of this Jain belief but also support and exemplify it.

The entire inert world is the mesh of illusion of Pudgals. (Puran: making; Galan: marring). Pudgal is the name given to that which has these two characteristics. Pugdal is the name given to that which keeps changing every moment and which undergoes variations every moment.