Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

The Navakar Mantra

What is the Jain Dharma or Jainism?
Who is a Jin?
Who is a Jain?
The Jain dharma
  The Arrangement Of Ara, The Phases Of Time
  Tirtha, Dharma And Tirthankar (One Who Reveals The Dharma)
  The Exposition Of The Philosophy
  Bhagwan Mahavir
  The Path Of Achievement
  Total Renunciation
  Some special rules of conduct for sadhus and sadhvis
  The Dashvirati Dharma
  The Fourteen Pledges By Househl Oders
  Avashyak (The Essentials)
  Prathana (Prayer)
  Jap And Dhyan
  The Eighteen Sources Of Sin (Papa Sthanak)..
  Before assuming Dharma
  Marganusari Gun: (35 virtues that guide us on the path of life)
  Tapasya and the codes of conduct:
  The External austerities ( six kinds )
  Abhyantar Tap (Six kinds)
  Some minor and major austerities for daily practice.
  Why is fasting essential ?
  Some Special And Important Austerities
  Why should water be boiled ?
  It is necessary to filter water:
  The Jain Dharma prohibits the eating of the following things
  Why should not people eat meat ?
  Even the egg is dangerous !
  Alcoholic drinks should be renounced
  Why should we not eat certain types of food?
  We should not take food in the night. Why?
  Why should we not eat green and raw vegetables on some special days?
  Organization of the Jain Society
  Some Important Jain Institutions
  Jain Upashray: Religious Centres
  The Jain Libraries
  The Jain Schools
  Ayambil Shala
  The Jain Panjarapol--Shelter for Cattle
  The Jain Choultries
  The Jain Pilgrim Centres
  The system of the seven institutions of the Jains.
  The Jain Festivals
  The Jain Celebrations
  The Jain Philosophy
  The Nine Doctrines
  Kashay- Passions
  The Process of Spiritual Elevation,
  Samiti and Gupti
  16 Bhavanas
  The Jain Literature
  A Representative Jain Work
  A Glossary Of Difficult Words

52. Kal-Time


Bhadrabahu Vijay

Time brings about change in everything. That is the work of time. A boy becomes a young man. A young man becomes an old man. The old man dies. A thing is called new; and it becomes old. All this is the effect of time. The past, the present and the future are the different forms of time. In the calculation of time, the Jain Dharma is unique and wonderful.

Sukshmakal = 1 Avalika (the smallest unit of time).

16777216 Avalikcs = 1 Muhurt.

30 Muhurtas = 1 day and night.

15 days and nights = 1 fortnight. 2 fortnights = 1 month.

12 months = 1 year

Countless years = 1 Palyopam.

10 Crores of Crores of Palyopam = 1 Sagaropam.

10 Crores of Crores of Sagaropam=l Utsarpini.

1 Utsarpini + Avasarpini = 1 Kalchakra- One cycle of time.


The good and auspicious actions and propensities of the mind, voice and body are called Punya or merit. It is also called Shubh Karma or auspicious Karma. The effect of the auspicious Karma falls directly on the soul. On account of this reason, the various kinds of conveniences and comforts, wealth, fame glory, prestige. respect. popularity. health. wellbeing, esteem, radiance, intelligence, strength, the power of comprehension, attainment of Dharma, spiritual benefit meeting noble people. the company of noble people, etc. that the Jivatma gets result from the auspicious Karma; that is Punya.


Pap or sin is the name given to the evil or inauspicious actions and propensities of the mind, voice and body. The Ashubh Karma is also known as inauspicious Pudgal. Like the effect of Punya merit, the effect of Pap sin also falls deeply on the soul. In consequence, the Jiva has to experience various kinds of misery and anguish; and it has to bear many hardships. Poverty, sickness, violence, falsehood, foolishness, ugliness, defamation etc., result only from sin. The eighteen main kinds of sinful propensities are: stealing, bad conduct, attachment, coma, indulgence etc. These are called sins


Ashrav means that which comes flowing Those things from which and through which, sinful actions come flowing and pollute the soul and corrupt it are called Ashrav. Chiefly, the impure impulses of the mind, voice and body can be called Ashrav.


It is the responsibility or duty of the watchman to stop the entry of people who are strangers and those who are suspected. Samvar does the duty of preventing Karmas from entering the soul in the same manner. It is possible to prevent Karmas from entering the soul by means of austerities, tapasya, repeating holy hymns, meditation and spiritual endeavours. It is possible to build a boundary with 58 kinds of Samvars to prevent Karmas from entering the soul.


Bandh is the name given to the principle that binds the soul and Karma together. The soul can receive the Pudgals of Karma. After they are received by the soul, they mix with it like water mixing with milk. This process is called Karma Bandh. The nature and extent of the Karma Bandh the bondage of Karma are determined by the mental propensities at the time when Karma binds the soul; and the effect of Karma also is determined by the mental propensities present at the time. Four main kinds of Bandh or bondage are mentioned.

(1) Prakriti bandh

(2) Sthiti bandh,

(3) Ras bandh

(4) Pradesh bandh.

The Nirjara-tatva

The actions and propensities that uproot and eradicate the Karmas that are bound to the soul. are called Nirjara. The external and internal austerities also help in ending or burning away the Karmas that cling to the soul and are collected in it. Mainly, twelve forms of this are mentioned.


The complete destruction of all the Karmas that envelop the pure soul, is called Moksha or salvation. When all the Karmas are completely destroyed, the atma-the soul becomes Paramatma or the supreme soul. After this state is attained, the soul does not have birth and death. Moksha is the natural state of the soul. Only human beings can traverse up to the state of Moksha and attain it. Of course, when all the Karmas are destroyed in the soul's journey towards salvation, even the body is discarded. Then, only the Atma or the soul exists with its natural attributes of Sat-reality, Chit- consciousness, Anand-bliss. That is Truth; that is Good; and that is Beautiful. The bliss of Moksha cannot be expressed in words; but it has to be experienced. It is a journey of experience. It is not a matter that can be described in words or shown. It has to be attained by one's own efforts. After that nothing lives; nothing remains. It is like asking a dumb person to describe the sweetness of the sugar he has tasted,