Time brings about change in everything. That is the
work of time. A boy becomes a young man. A young man becomes an old man.
The old man dies. A thing is called new; and it becomes old. All this is
the effect of time. The past, the present and the future are the different
forms of time. In the calculation of time, the Jain Dharma is unique and
Sukshmakal = 1 Avalika (the smallest unit of time).
16777216 Avalikcs = 1 Muhurt.
30 Muhurtas = 1 day and night.
15 days and nights = 1 fortnight. 2 fortnights = 1
12 months = 1 year
Countless years = 1 Palyopam.
10 Crores of Crores of Palyopam = 1 Sagaropam.
10 Crores of Crores of Sagaropam=l Utsarpini.
1 Utsarpini + Avasarpini = 1 Kalchakra- One cycle
The good and auspicious actions and propensities of the
mind, voice and body are called Punya or merit. It is also called Shubh
Karma or auspicious Karma. The effect of the auspicious Karma falls
directly on the soul. On account of this reason, the various kinds of
conveniences and comforts, wealth, fame glory, prestige. respect.
popularity. health. wellbeing, esteem, radiance, intelligence, strength,
the power of comprehension, attainment of Dharma, spiritual benefit
meeting noble people. the company of noble people, etc. that the Jivatma
gets result from the auspicious Karma; that is Punya.
Pap or sin is the name given to the evil or
inauspicious actions and propensities of the mind, voice and body. The
Ashubh Karma is also known as inauspicious Pudgal. Like the effect of
Punya merit, the effect of Pap sin also falls deeply on the soul. In
consequence, the Jiva has to experience various kinds of misery and
anguish; and it has to bear many hardships. Poverty, sickness, violence,
falsehood, foolishness, ugliness, defamation etc., result only from sin.
The eighteen main kinds of sinful propensities are: stealing, bad conduct,
attachment, coma, indulgence etc. These are called sins
Ashrav means that which comes flowing Those things from
which and through which, sinful actions come flowing and pollute the soul
and corrupt it are called Ashrav. Chiefly, the impure impulses of the
mind, voice and body can be called Ashrav.
It is the responsibility or duty of the watchman to
stop the entry of people who are strangers and those who are suspected.
Samvar does the duty of preventing Karmas from entering the soul in the
same manner. It is possible to prevent Karmas from entering the soul by
means of austerities, tapasya, repeating holy hymns, meditation and
spiritual endeavours. It is possible to build a boundary with 58 kinds of
Samvars to prevent Karmas from entering the soul.
Bandh is the name given to the principle that binds the
soul and Karma together. The soul can receive the Pudgals of Karma. After
they are received by the soul, they mix with it like water mixing with
milk. This process is called Karma Bandh. The nature and extent of the
Karma Bandh the bondage of Karma are determined by the mental propensities
at the time when Karma binds the soul; and the effect of Karma also is
determined by the mental propensities present at the time. Four main kinds
of Bandh or bondage are mentioned.
(1) Prakriti bandh
(2) Sthiti bandh,
(3) Ras bandh
(4) Pradesh bandh.
The actions and propensities that uproot and eradicate
the Karmas that are bound to the soul. are called Nirjara. The external
and internal austerities also help in ending or burning away the Karmas
that cling to the soul and are collected in it. Mainly, twelve forms of
this are mentioned.
The complete destruction of all the Karmas that envelop
the pure soul, is called Moksha or salvation. When all the Karmas are
completely destroyed, the atma-the soul becomes Paramatma or the supreme
soul. After this state is attained, the soul does not have birth and
death. Moksha is the natural state of the soul. Only human beings can
traverse up to the state of Moksha and attain it. Of course, when all the
Karmas are destroyed in the soul's journey towards salvation, even the
body is discarded. Then, only the Atma or the soul exists with its natural
attributes of Sat-reality, Chit- consciousness, Anand-bliss. That is
Truth; that is Good; and that is Beautiful. The bliss of Moksha cannot be
expressed in words; but it has to be experienced. It is a journey of
experience. It is not a matter that can be described in words or shown. It
has to be attained by one's own efforts. After that nothing lives; nothing
remains. It is like asking a dumb person to describe the sweetness of the
sugar he has tasted,