Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

The Navakar Mantra

What is the Jain Dharma or Jainism?
Who is a Jin?
Who is a Jain?
The Jain dharma
  The Arrangement Of Ara, The Phases Of Time
  Tirtha, Dharma And Tirthankar (One Who Reveals The Dharma)
  The Exposition Of The Philosophy
  Bhagwan Mahavir
  The Path Of Achievement
  Total Renunciation
  Some special rules of conduct for sadhus and sadhvis
  The Dashvirati Dharma
  The Fourteen Pledges By Househl Oders
  Avashyak (The Essentials)
  Prathana (Prayer)
  Jap And Dhyan
  The Eighteen Sources Of Sin (Papa Sthanak)..
  Before assuming Dharma
  Marganusari Gun: (35 virtues that guide us on the path of life)
  Tapasya and the codes of conduct:
  The External austerities ( six kinds )
  Abhyantar Tap (Six kinds)
  Some minor and major austerities for daily practice.
  Why is fasting essential ?
  Some Special And Important Austerities
  Why should water be boiled ?
  It is necessary to filter water:
  The Jain Dharma prohibits the eating of the following things
  Why should not people eat meat ?
  Even the egg is dangerous !
  Alcoholic drinks should be renounced
  Why should we not eat certain types of food?
  We should not take food in the night. Why?
  Why should we not eat green and raw vegetables on some special days?
  Organization of the Jain Society
  Some Important Jain Institutions
  Jain Upashray: Religious Centres
  The Jain Libraries
  The Jain Schools
  Ayambil Shala
  The Jain Panjarapol--Shelter for Cattle
  The Jain Choultries
  The Jain Pilgrim Centres
  The system of the seven institutions of the Jains.
  The Jain Festivals
  The Jain Celebrations
  The Jain Philosophy
  The Nine Doctrines
  Kashay- Passions
  The Process of Spiritual Elevation,
  Samiti and Gupti
  16 Bhavanas
  The Jain Literature
  A Representative Jain Work
  A Glossary Of Difficult Words

59. Naya


Bhadrabahu Vijay

Single-point of view.

Naya is an aspect of Praman-Naya means choosing one special aspect of an object which has countless aspects or natures and describing the object in terms of that aspect. ignoring the other aspects.

In other words, to put it more clearly, Naya is to describe an object from one, single and separate point of view.

Naya is classified into two kinds; and it is of seven types.

1. Nishchay Naya

It means understanding the inner nature of an object; not depending upon exceptions.

2. Vyavahar Naya

Vyavahar Naya is understanding the external nature or form of an object. making use of exceptions.

The seven types of Naya

Naigam Naya

Understanding by name

This means understanding a man or a thing by name and understanding the form and nature of an object on the basis of the name. For instance we say " My cloth has burnt away" when we see it just burning.

Sangrah Naya

Partial understanding

Including much in a little.. or understanding a special object in an ordinary way.... This is called Sangrah Naya.


External understanding

Vyavahar Naya means understanding an ordinary thing as a special thing; and differentiating the object on that basis. An example of this is to consider a man as noble on the basis of his outward behavior and appearance.

Rujusutra Naya

Understanding on the basis of the present condition.

This Naya implies the tendency to understand an object as it is at present. Ruju means--simple.... so thinking in a simple way.... thinking thus: ' What we have done today is right".

Shabd Naya

Understanding on the basis of sound.

Sound is all-lmportant in this Naya. Hearing the name of any man or object and understanding the man or the object as the meaning of the name suggests.

Samabhirudh Naya

Understanding on the basis of the derivation of words.

Obtaining various meanings on the basis of various derivations of the sounds or words

Evambhut Naya

The truth as it is

This Naya implies the tendency to believe that an object functions and produces results as its name indicates; and the three are complete and identical. For example, calling a man a devotee when he is showing devotion; not at other times; and not otherwise.

The way of understanding all objects by means of the collective medium of all these seven Nayas is called Samakiti or comprehensive vision. All things cannot be done by means of one article. Many times, we construct something by mixing various things; and we have to give equal importance to all those things. To build a house, lime, mortar, cement. stones, clay etc., are as important and essential as bricks. Only by combining all these things can we build a house.