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Extension of Jainism - Early Period


References

1. Sacred Books of the East, Vol. XXII, p. 288.

2. Select Inscriptions, p. 360.

3. Pravasi (Bengali), Vaishakha B. S 1327 (AD 1934), pp. 63, 72.

4. At Pakbira in the Manbhum district, a colossal naked figure of Vira under the name of Bhiram is still worshipped by the people. (Distt. Gasetteer of Manbhum, p. 51).

5. P.C. Roy Choudhary, Jainism in Bihar, Patna, 1956, P. 46. A photograph of the 2.25 meters high image has been reproduced in a plate facing P. 56 of this book. The caption there says that it is the image of Bahubali. This does not appear to be correct. Bahubali has creepers entwining his legs. There are no creepers in this image. The lotus symbol on the pedestal shows that the image is either of the Tirthankara Padmaprabhanatha whose symbol is Red Lotus or of the Tirthankara Naminatha whose symbol is blue Lotus. So far as is known Bahubali is not worshipped in North India.

6. P.C. Roy Choudhary, Jainism in Bihar, Patna, 1956, p. 46. A Photograph of the 2.25 meters high image has been reproduced in a plate facing p. 56 of this book. The caption there says that it is the image of Bahubali. This does not appear to be correct. Bahubali has creepers entwining his legs. There are no creepers in this image. The Lotus symbol on the pedestal shows that the image is either of the Tirthankara Padmaprabhanatha whose symbol is Red Lotus or of the Tirthankara Naminatha whose symbol is Blue Lotus. So far as is known, Bahubali is not worshipped in North India.

7. Select Inscriptions, p. 213.

8. `Arhant' is the term for saints both in Jainism and Buddhism. The reference here is clearly to the Jain saints, for the Jain formula of Namokkara or nokara is:

Namo arihantam

namo sidhanam

Namo ayariyanam

namo uvajhayanam

Namo lo-e savva sahunam.

The Buddhist formula of vandana in the Petakoppadesa is:

Namo Sammasambuddhanam Paramthadassinam

Shiladiguna-para-mippattanam.


9. This line in the inscription has been read by Jayaswas as "Nandaraja-nitam ca kalinga-Jinam sannivesa..., B.M. Barua, on the other hand reads here Nandaraja-jitan ca Kalingajanasan (n)i(ve)sam...... (Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. XIV, p.468.) He translates the relevant passage as "...and compelled Brihaspatimitra, the king of the Magadh people, to bow down at his feet, (did something in connection with) the settlements of the Kalinga people subjugated by the king Nanda,...... carried the wealth......" Barua's reading would thus demolish the theory of the Kalinga-Jina' completely.

10. Barua thinks that Jayaswal's translation here of "relic depository" is wrong. Barua reads here, "the Arhat resting place," for fulfilling the rainy season vow.

11. Schubring, the Doctrine of the Jains, p. 48.

12. H. Goetz, in the Encyclopedia of World Art, Vol. VIII, p 788.

13. Debala Mitra, Udayagiri and Khandagiri, 1960, p. 6.

14. Ibid., pp. 6-7.

15. This date has been suggested on paleographic evidence.

16. Though the year Shaka 388 (AD 466-67) is clearly mentioned in this inscription, the writing is of the 8th or 9th century. From this it has been conjectured that it is a forged document. It is likely, however, that it is the copy of a 5th century document. (A. K. Chatterjee, A Comprehensive History of Jainism, pp. 137- 38 and 324).

17. Jain Shilalekha Sangraha, Vol. I, pp. 1-2.

18. W. Schubring, op. cit., p 52.

19. M. Winternitz, A History of Indian literature, P. 476.

20. J. P. Singh, op. Cit., p. 101.

21. Ibid.

22. Ibid. p. 98.

23. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri & V. Ramsub Ramniam, "Aundy," in Mahavira and his Teachings, Bombay, 1977, p. 302.

24. I. Mahadevan, Corpus of the Tamil Brahmin Inscriptions, madras, 1966.

25. P. B. Desai, Jainism in South India, Sholapur, 1957, p. 24.

26. Hemchandra mentions nothing about Dasharath, another grandson of Ashoka. That Dasharath was a historical person is proved from his three inscriptions bestowing on the Ajivika sect some caves in the Nagarjuni hills (Gaya district). Dasharath perhaps ruled over the eastern part of the Empire

27. Different Puranas give different versions of the lists of kings. Thus Vishnu Purana says that after the reign of Andhra-Bhrityas, there would be seven Abhira and ten Gardhabhila kings who would be followed by sixteen Shaka kings (Vishnu-Purana, Part IV, Ch. 24, SL. 51-52).

28. Winternitz, op. Cit., p. 589.

29. Papers on the Date of Kuniska, Leiden, 1968, pp. ix, 150-154.

30. This number in the bracket is the inscription number in the Jain-Shila-lekha Sangraha, Vol. II.

31. Hiven Tsang, when he passed through Mathura in the seventh century mentioned, that there were good numbers of Buddhist stupas in Mathura. "One of them built by the venerable Upagupta was on a hill, the sides of which have been excavated to allow the construction of cells. The approach is by a ravine." Hiuen Tsang's description has been doubted on the basis that there are no hills near about Mathura, Growse has suggested. "Upagupta's stupa may well have formed the raised center of the Kankali-tilla." (F. S. Growse, Mathura, a District Memoir, 2nd Ed. Allahabad, 1880, p. 110). Cunningham (1871) gave a description of the Kankali-tila `hill' the higher portion of which at that time "had been repeatedly burrowed for bricks:� The "mound (was) 400 feet in length from west to east, and nearly 300 feet in breadth, with a mean height of 10 or 12 feet above the field. At the eastern end it (rose) to a height of 25 feet with a breadth of 60 feet at top, and about 150 feet at base. Kankali-tila contains without exception pure Jain Monuments� Archaeological Survey of India, report 3, 1983, P. 19). It appears, therefore, that either Growse's conjecture that Kankali- tila was formally in Buddhist possession is wrong, and thus it was not this place which Hiuen-Tsang had visited; or if Growse is correct then the Jains had in later days i.e. after the visit of Hiuen Tsang removed all Buddhist remains from Kankali-tila.

32. Sircar, Select Inscriptions, pp. 156-157.

33. Not `42' as mentioned in the Jain Shila Lekha Sangraha, Vol. II, p. 12. See D. C. Sircar, Select Inscriptions, P. 120.

34. Negamesa or Harinegamesi was the God who under the orders of Shakra removed the embryo of Mahavira from the womb of Devandanda to that of Trishala: (Kalpa Sutra, in S. B. E., Vol. XXII, p. 229).

35. In Jain Shilalekha Saringraha, Vol. II, this profession is not mentioned. Luders, however, reads the word as "Ka (r) ppas (i) kasya", as the profession of the donor's husband. (Luders, Mathura Inscriptions, pp. 46- 47).

36. J. Prasad, Jain Sources of the History of India, p. 101.

37. Shrivatsa in the earlier images is generally a vertical line with an S- shaped mark on its left, and its mirror image on the right. Later the symbol changed into a lozenge shaped four-petalled flower. In Hinduism it represents "Shri" the Goddess of fortune. It is the special mark of Vishnu. In Jainism Shrivatsa is found on the chests of Tirthankaras all over Northern India but not in South India. The symbol appears sometimes on the images of the Buddha also, but not on the chest. (C. Siva Ram Murti in Ancient India, No. 6, pp. 44-46).

38. See Appendix IV.

39. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol. III, No. 15.