Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

INTRODUCTION

SPEECH
PREFACE
FOREWORD
SIGNIFICANT FEATURES
  DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES
  RELIGIOUS SPLITS
  SOCIAL FISSIONS
  FLOURISHMENT AND DECLINE
  CURRENT FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES
  TABLES

DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES

 

 

3. RURAL-URBAN DISTRIBUTION

 

          The Jainas are essentially urban dwellers. This is the only religious community in India whose total numbers in urban areas exceeds their number in rural areas.1 Out of 32,06,038 total population of Jainas in India as per 1981 Census, 20,50,931 Jainas reside in urban areas and 11,55,107 Jainas reside in rural areas. It means that the percentage of urban and rural population among the Jainas is 63.9 and 36.1 respectively. These figures for all religions in India are 23.7 and 76.3 respectively.

 

          The urban character of the Jaina population can be noticed from another point of view. The Jainas in India form only 0.48 per cent of the total population of the country. But the Jainas constitute 1.30 per cent of the urban population and, only 0.23 per cent of the rural population of the country.

 

          The Jainas are not only more urbanised persons but their preference to live in urban areas in continuously increasing in this century. The figures showing the percentage of Jainas residing in the urban areas in the last eight Census Reports are given in Table No. 12.

 

          From the above Table it is evident that the percentage of urban Jaina population has doubled during the last 80 years and that there is an increasing tendency among the Jainas to prefer to reside in urban areas than in rural areas.

Further, the urban character of Jaina population is not uniform over different States and Union Territories of India. From the statements showing the distribution of Urban and Rural population of Jainas as per 1971 Census, it is clear that the Jainas are more urban in the areas where they are few in number and more rural in the areas where they are comparatively large in number.   That is why the proportion of the Jainas living in the urban areas is 99.39 per cent in Jammu and Kashmir, 99.20 per cent in Nagaland, 98.32 per cent in Pondicherry, 91.97 per cent in Punjab, 86.08 per cent in Andhra

                                                                                                                  

l. Census of India, 1981 : Series 1 India; Paper 3 of 1984 on Household Population by Religion, p. viii.


 

TABLE NO. 12

                                                                                                                  

          Census Year                                   Percentage        of urban Jaina

                                                                   population

                                                                                                                  

          1901                                                 30.0

          1911                                                 29.6

          1921                                                 33.9

          1931                                                 34.6

          1941                                                 41.4

          1951                                                 Not available

          1961                                                 53.9

          1971                                                 59.8

          1981                                                 63.9

                                                                                                                  

 

          Pradesh, 82.00 per cent in West Bengal and 81.29 per cent in Goa, Daman and Diu. It is obvious that there is a very sparse population of the Jainas in these States and Union Territories. Similarly, the proportion of the Jainas living in the rural areas is 65.91 per cent in Karnataka, 53.54 per cent in Rajasthan, 37.74 per cent in Madhya Pradesh, 36.44 per cent in Maharashtra and 33.74 per cent in Gujarat as these are the States where the Jaina population is mostly concentrated.

 

          Thus the preference of the Jainas to live in urban areas is their characteristic feature. This is due to the fact that in any region with a pronounced majority of one religion it will be found that persons not of that religion are mainly to be seen in the towns. A Parsi or a Christian, unless by an accident brought up in a village, will not find himself at home in rural conditions. This type of phenomenon is common all over the world. Everywhere the country is homogeneous and native, the town heterogeneous and cosmopolitan. All minorities thus find way to and flourish in towns and that is why the Jaina community is essentially urban in character.

 

4. SEX COMPOSITION

 

          The sex composition of the Jainas reveals a clear deficiency of females. There are only 941 females per 1000 males in the Jaina community. The sex ratio among the Jainas during the last nine censuses is given in Table No. 13.

  

TABLE NO. 13

                                                                                                                  

          Census Year                          Number of females per 1000 males

                                                                                                                  

          1901                                                          929

          1911                                                          940

          1921                                                          931

          1931                                                          940

          1941                                                          930

          1951                                                          927

          1961                                                          924

          1971                                                          940

          1981                                                          941