Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions






          From the above Table it will be seen that the proportion of females to males in the Jaina community has been varying and that the proportion of females continuously declined from 1931 onwards upto 1961. The proportion of females to males became lowest, ie. 924 in 1961 and it registered a rise to 940 in 1971 and to 941 in 1981. In this connection it may be mentioned that no definite tendency is conclusively revealed by these figures and that the alternate variation in figures at many censuses seems to be the result of incorrect enumeration of females among the Jainas during the census operations.


          The proportion of females to males in the major religious communities in India as per 1981 Census is given in Table No. 14.




          Religious Community                             Number of Females per

                                                                             1000 males


          Christians                                                  992

          Buddhists                                                  953

          Jainas                                                        941

          Hindus                                                       933

          ALL                                                           934

          Muslims                                                     937

          Sikhs                                                         880



          From the above Table it will be noticed that the proportion of females to males among the Jainas is less compared to the Christian and the Buddhists but it is more compared to the Sikhs, the Muslims and the Hindus.


          Further even among the Jainas there is a wide variation in their sex composition from State to State. From the figures of sex distribution among the Jaina population of different States and Union Territories of India as per 1971 Census it is clear that the proportion of females to males is largely greater than the average (940) in Pondicherry (1026), Gujarat (1021), Rajasthan (1010), Andaman and Nicobar Islands (1000) and Jammu and Kashmir (993) and the proportion is much smaller than the average (940) in Tripura (349), Arunachala Pradesh (392), Nagaland (555) and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (586). This difference is mainly due to the fact that the proportion of females among the Jainas is generally more among the States (like Gujarat and Rajasthan) where they are mostly concentrated and it is generally less among the States and Union Territories ( like Tripura and Arunachala Pradesh) where they are very sparsely populated and are settled there temporarily for business purposes.


          There are various causes which contribute to the deficiency of females, viz. (i) concealment of females, (ii) excess of males at birth, (iii) female infanticide, (iv) neglect of female children, (v) higher female mortality and (vi) religious conversion of males. It is very difficult to say which of these factors are responsible for creating disparity among males and females in the Jaina community. The Jaina population being literate and intelligent would not indulge in concealing the females at the time of the census. Since the exact figures of sex of children at birth are not available we cannot say whether there is any excess of males at birth in the Jaina community. The Jainas are sufficiently advanced and as such there could not be any possibility of practicing female infanticide by them. It is true that in a society where the female children are considered to be a burden, they are liable to be neglected. But this neglect perhaps arises out of the economic condition of parents and as economic condition of the Jaina community is comparatively well, there are very less chances of females being neglected. Female mortality is different at various age-periods. The death rate among females is higher than that of males in the 5-10 years age-group. This is due to the neglect of female children which varies to some extent with economic circumstances and, as said above, female mortality on this account must be low in the Jaina community. A study of specific death rate shows that after the age of 5, only in the 40 and over alp-groups, the female: death rate is lower than that of male. This means that the female death rate is higher in age period 5-40. If the female ratio for any community is declining it might be due to the fact that the mortality amongst women aged between 5 and 40 might be more than offsetting the female superiority in the age groups 1 to 5 years and over 60 years. There is every probability that female death rate between the age-period 5-40 might be higher in the Jaina community as many Jaina females are married at an early age and are called upon to bear children too early and possibly too often. But, due to the lack of figures of female death rate at various age-periods it is difficult to pronounce to what extent the high female mortality is responsible for the deficiency of females in the Jaina community No religious conversion is resorted to by the Jaina community and we should not, on this account, assume the excess of males among the Jainas.


[This Table Page No. 27 to 34 is in �ALL TABLE�]