Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions

Herbert Warren's Jainism

THE UNIVERSE
CONSIDERATION OF ASPECTS, OR WAYS OF KNOWING THINGS
MAN AS HE ACTUALLY IS
Karmas
  CAUSES of Karmas
  MAN AS HE MAY BECOME
  MEANS TO THE END
  STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT (GUNASTHANA)
  FIRST STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  SECOND STAGE of development
  THIRD STAGE of development
  FOURTH STAGE of development: part-1
  FOURTH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT: Part-2
  FIFTH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  SIXTH TO FOURTEENTH STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
  THE SPIRITUAL TEACHER
  LOVE (DAYA)
  SOILINGS OF THE RIGHT ATTITUDE
  SCALE OF LIVING BEINGS
  MEANS WHEREBY THE RIGHT ATTITUDE MAY BE OBTAINED
  TIME
  THIRTY-FIVE RULES OF CONDUCT
  SYNTHESIS OR RECAPITULATION
  BIBLIOGRAPHY

FIFTH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT


 

 

So, when we are in any state in which we do not exercise care and caution, and in that state we tear asunder (to pieces) any of these life forces, then we kill. This can be done also in the hell state, only the forces come together again after separation; the pain of the separation is felt.

The next thing to know is, which particular forms of killing can be refrained from by the persons in this fifth stage of development, because he cannot refrain from all forms. The various ways in which life is destroyed, can be learned by observation of people's conduct; but a few may be mentioned here:

1.   Hunting, shooting and fishing.

2.   Vivisection.

3.   For dress: Skins, feathers, etc.

4.   For food: fish, game, meat, etc.

5.   In war.

6.   For private revenge.

7.   For so-called religious purposes: sacrifices, for instance.

8.   Insects, flies, etc., because we think they trouble us.

9.   Capital punishment.

10.  Self-defense, etc.

It may be added here that, according to the Jain view, a king may fight in self-defense, as will be seen later on, under the first vow.

If we analyst the state of mind of a person who is hunting for sport, we find three factors,

1.   an absence of thought of the pain and harm he is inflicting on the innocent creatures;

2.   he is entirely taken up with his own pleasure;

3.   he has no feeling for the pain and suffering of the animals. Thus we find thoughtlessness, selfishness, and heartlessness.

Vivisection is done to gain certain physiological knowledge. We have no right to gain knowledge at the expense of other living beings, and further, our lack of knowledge is due to some unnatural activities in us (karma), and if we remove it, we shall have the knowledge, without injuring the living beings; and injuring these in vivisection is not the way to remove the knowledge-obscuring "Karma". In the Jain idea of morality, relations with all living beings are considered, and not merely relationships with man.

Now, from the point of view of the protection a layman can afford to life, living beings can be divided into:

1.   Those that can move from place to place.

2.   Stationary living beings, such as trees, vegetables, etc.

The layman cannot take a vow to remain from killing the latter. And to compare the protection to life afforded by a layman with that afforded by a monk, we may represent full protection by the number 16, so in this first division the layman's protection covers, roughly speaking, only half the living beings, and can therefore be represented by the figure 8.

Now, taking moving living beings, how much protection can the layman give to these? There is destroying them with determined intention, where he thinks, "I want to kill them, and I am killing them." There is killing them in household and personal matters, cooking, digging, foundations, etc. The layman cannot refrain from the later kind, and so, again, the protection he can afford to living being is reduced to 4.

How much can he avoid killing moving living beings with determined intention? These may be either innocent or guilty, so far as the layman's interests are concerned. He cannot say he will not kill the guilty ones. A lion, if he attacks you, is guilty; so is a burglar. Again, the figure is reduced to 2.

Therefore, disregarding the guilty, we must consider only the innocent. Men, when they kill innocent living beings intentionally, do so either without a necessary cause, or else for a special necessary cause. The layman cannot undertake to refrain from the intentional killing of innocent beings, when there is a necessary cause for doing it. So, again, the figure is halved, and the protection which a layman can undertake to afford to life is, in comparison with that afforded by the monk, as 1 is to 16.

The layman, then, can undertake to refrain from intentionally killing innocent moving living beings, when he has no necessary cause for killing them. So the first vow of the layman would be : I shall not without a necessary purpose kill with determined intention a moving living being when it is innocent.

 

INCIDENTAL

Virtues and vices are states of the individual, and can never be transmitted or transferred from one person to another. Each person develops his own state of virtue, just as he develops his own knowledge. We cannot impart virtue; we cannot impart knowledge. By talking to a person, we supply the means whereby he can develop knowledge.
 

PARTIAL TRANSGRESSIONS OF THE FIRST VOW

As was the case with the thirty-five rules of conduct, so with these twelve special rules, the practice of them is internal as well as external; and in the partial transgressions given below, it is the internal practice of the rules that is broken, while in the external way the rule or vow is not broken. In all these vows, the chief ideas are partial self-control, and love, and in the partial transgressions, now to be given, this self-control and kindliness are absent.

1.   Angrily or carelessly tying up an animal or a human being. When tying up is absolutely necessary, it should be done so that in case of fire the animal can quickly be undone, and the human being can undo himself. As a matter of fact, the Jain philosophy teaches that a person who practices these vows, ought not to keep such animals as have to be tied up.

2.   Unnecessarily striking or beating or whipping; or doing so on a delicate or tender part of the body.

3.   Cutting or piercing, without a necessary cause. Docking horses' tails would come under this heading.

4.   Overloading an animal or person, through greed or any reason but extreme necessity.

5.   Withholding food or drink, without a real necessary reason.

There are other ways in which this first vow may be partially transgressed, but the above five ways are given as illustrations.

 

FRUITS

It is the opinion of the Jain Philosophy that the result of the observance of this vow is good health, a strong body, and a strong constitution in the future life. No separation from friends, relatives, or parents. There would be happiness, the legitimate pleasures of life, comforts, long life; he will have a good name, handsome features, and an enjoyable youth.

The results of killing would be the opposite of these things, such as lameness, some incurable disease, separation from friends and relatives, sorrow, short life, and after that, an incarnation in a low state (animal or hell).