Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
Mahavira's Teachings
The Early Centuries of Jainism
Jainism In Indian History
Jainism Enters The Modern Age
Doctrines of Jainism: Part 1
  Doctrines of Jainism: Part 2
  The Jain Path In Life: Part 1
  The Jain Path In Life: Part 2
  Daily Practices and Recitations
  Rituals and Festivals
  Pilgrimage and Sacred Places
  Jainism and Other Religions



Paul Marett

These words are, of course, normally written in Indian scripts so different spellings can be found when they are converted into the Roman alphabet. Some variants are shown in brackets. In particular the final -a (which is often not pronounced) is often omitted, c is pronounced ch and often written thus, s may stand for the English s or sh sounds.

Acharya: leader of a community of monks

Ahimsa: non-violence

Ajiva: non-living substance

Anekantavada: the view of non-one-sidedness

Anga: sacred scriptures of the Jains arati

Aarti: ceremony of waving lamps

Ardhamagadhi: the Prakrit language in which the Jain scriptures and prayers are written

Arhat (arihanta): an enlightened soul, one who has reached the last stage before final liberation

Arihanta Puja: a form of worship praising the arhat and other beings

Asrava: inflow of karma into the soul

Bandha: binding of karma to the soul

Brahmin: the priestly caste in Indian society

Chaitya Vandana: temple prayers

Chaturyama dharma: the 'fourfold teaching' of the twenty- third Tirthankara, abstention from violence, untruth, stealing and acquisitiveness

Dhyana: deep meditation Digambara: 'sky-clad', one of the two major sects of Jainism (see 'Svetambara')Diksa (diksha): initiation of a monk

Dipa: a lamp

Divali: Indian festival, kept by the Jains in remembrance of Mahavira's moksa

Ganadhara: the eleven immediate followers of Mahavira Gunasthana: the fourteen stages on the ladder of spiritual progress

Guru: a teacher, particularly a monk's master in the religious order

Jai Jinendra: honor to the supreme Jina (Jain greeting) Jina:one who has conquered (the passions), usually referring to a Tirthankara

Jiva: Living being, soul

Jnana Pancham: fifth day of the year, the day of knowledge Kalpa Sutra: a popular Jain sacred scripture

Karma: actions, the instrument by which previous actions take effect on the individual's soul and life

Keval jnana: total knowledge, omniscience

Ksatriya: the knightly caste in Indian society

Mahavira Jayanti: annual festival celebrating Mahavira's birth

Maunagiyaras: annual day of silence and fasting

Moguls (Mughals): rulers of the Muslim empire in India (sixteenth to eighteenth centuries A.D.)

Moksa (moksha): final liberation, nirvana

Muni: a monk

Namaskara Mantra: see 'Panca Namaskara'

Namo: I bow to...

Nigoda: very tiny living beings

Nirjara: shedding of karma from the soul

Nirvana: final liberation, moksa

Nisihi: utterance on entering temple to indicate abandonment of worldly thoughts