Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions - Jain View of Life









(iv)           Jatimada  is the arrogance of birth in a particular �higher� society and community. This also makes him lose the balance of the perspective of life and society. It leads him towards the disdain of the lowly in society and exploits them to his advantage.

(v)              Bala mada In this, one develops the sense of superiority for strength and valour. He may become a tyrant and maniac. Adolf Hitler is an example of a person who suffered from the illusion of racial superiority and of the need for the extermination of the Jewish people. He was so full of arrogance of power and authority,  that when, once, it is reported, Lord chamberlain asked him how he was so confident of winning the war for which he was so greatly clambering. Adolf Hitler called a few of his guards of the suicide squad and ordered them to jump from the 4th floor and die. The Guards did jump and die. They had to sacrifice their lives for the sake of glorifying the power of Adolf Hitler. This is the arrogance of strength and power.

(vi)          Rddhimada This is the vanity of the possession of some extra-ordinary power. The possession of miracles and supernormal powers through the tapas and yougic practices may bring some powers. But one, purshing the path of spiritual perfection, should desist from using them. Otherwise, one is likely to lose the balance of mind and become arrogant towards the fellow mortals. There are numerous instances Rsis who have fallen from the height of spirituality because of their arrogance of the attainment of certai power, and possession of wealth.

(vii)   Tapo mada refers to the vanity of ascetic practices. One feels superior because he unlike the lowly fellow mortals� practises penance, that gives arrogance of  tapas, and he strays away from the true path of perfection.

(viii)      Sarira mada is the arrogance of having a beautiful body. We forget that the form and the physical beauty ar temporary. They fade. We forget that we get old and that in old and that in old age and in accidents. Defocoemcoes and deformities are formed. To gorged this and to love and admire one�s beautiful body creates an illusion of superiority and a disdain for the less fortunate fellow mortals.

The 8 types cavity vitiate the mind , make us forget the real nature of the pursuit of truth. We do not get back the perspective of life and personality and we �lose the soul�


2.                 we now turn our attention towards understanding the 3 types of folly (Mudhata). They are 49

(i)               Loka-mudhata: It refers to the superstitious practices in social and religious matters. These practices are based on blind irrational foundations generations. These refer to the customs and mores which are not directly recant to the purpose of achieving the personal social and spiritual excellence. For take the holy dips in the river and in sea for the sake washing off our sins . If taking bath in the holy rives were to wash away our sins, the Buddha asked, then the fish and crocodiles living permanently in the river would have washed all their sins ans. would have been assured of a seat in heaven. Similarly, practices like jumping from the top of the mountain for the same reason would be blind practice. men worship all sorts of deities made of sand and stone. Going �sati� after the death of the husband is also irrational. All these practices are rooted in ignorance and blind superstitious beliefs regarding the good of man. They constitute the ignorance of the populace Lokamudhata.

(ii)     Devamudhata 50  refers top the worship of the fierce and benevolent deities from whom we expect protection, punishment or rewards. We worship the deities for the sake of propitiating them so that the fierce deities may not harm us and benevolent may reward us with prosperity. We forget the fact that the god is a spiritual force. He neither rewards punishes. If he or she were to indulge in such tasks of rewarding and punishment, they would be steeped in the baser impulses and emotions of the animal world. Such gods are no gods. We should free ourselves from such superstitious practices. They are rooted in the practices of the primitive ma handed down to us for centuries on end. This is an anthropological problem for study.

(ii)            Gurumudhata 50  is the following a guru ( teacher or preceptor) who  does not possess the requisite excellence of a guru. A true teacher is one who has mental, moral and spiritual excellence. He must have knowledge and wisdom. He is selfless and compassionate. He is a seeker after truth. But very often we run after persons who do not possess these qualities and who are not fit to be called guru. They indulge in all sorts of unseemly activities. To follow such gurus constitutes Gurumudhata. This type of analysis of the folly has great social significance. In our age, we find we run agter those mediocre men who profess to have knowledge and power and who dote on authorities. In our academic institutions like colleges and the Universities, we rarely find real scholars who are devoted to their studies, pursuit of knowledge and teaching. They are more interested in their personal benefit and they run after administrative and political power. They indulge in unacademic and unseemly activities. They are the teacher politicians. Such men should be avoided and be kept away from the young impressive minds. However, it is not to be said that this type of intellectual and social climate is to be found in our time only. Socrates railed against the sophists and the academic and political brigands. He crusaded against hypocrisy. And he had to drink hemelok.