Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions - Jain View of Life
INTRODUCTION
SYNOPTIC PHILOSOPHY
APPROACH TO REALITY
THE JAINA THEORY OF THE SOUL
CRITIQUE OF KNOWLEDGE
  THE DOCTRINE OF KARMA IN JAINA PHILOSOPHY
 

THE PATHWAY TO PERFECTION

 

IN THIS OUR LIFE

  MEN OR GODS
 

GENERAL INDEX


Chapter-3 : THE JAINA THEORY OF THE SOUL

 

The first characteristic of the soul is supayoga. The word upayoga is difficult to define. It is the source of experience. The cognitive, cognitive and adjective aspects spring form it. It is different a of living organism. Umasavati says that upayoga  is the essential characteristic of the soul. 17 Upayoga has contain prominence. Upayoga is that by which a function is serve: upayujayte anena it upayogah. It is also described as that by which a subject is grasped. 18  In  the Gommatasara: jivakanda, Upayoga is described as the drie which leads to the apprehension of object.19 It  is the source of the psychical aspect of experience. It gie rise to the experiecne f objects, and the experience expresses itself in form sof jnana and darsana. Upayoga is of two types: anakara, formless, ans sakara, possessed of form. Anakara anakara, formless, ans sakara, possessed of form. Anakara Upayoga is formless, indeterminate cognition. Sakara Upayoga is determinate cognition, a defined form of experience. It would not be out of place to point out that upyoga is ot the resultant of consciousness as it is sometimes maintained. This was one of the earlier attempts to translate Upayoga. Nor is it a sort of inclination arising from consciousness. It is the cognitive drive, which gives rise to experience. It is, in fact, the source of all experience, the Jaina philosophers were aware of the driving force of experience, the force by which experience, the force by which experience is possible. This may beckoned to the �horme� of the modern psychologists. It may be called home in the sense that McDougall has used the term. It is a vital impulse for urge to action. Nunn has stated that home is the basis of activity the at differentiates the living animal from dead matter. It is like Schopenhauer�s will to lie�, and Bergson�s elan vital� jnana and darasana are manifestations of upyoga.

The biological studies of the lower animals from the amoebae onwards show that all animals are centers of energy in constant dynamical relation with the world, yet confronting it in their own characteristic way. A name was needed to express this fundamental property of life, the drive or a felt tendency towards a particular end.  Some psychologists called it conation or the coactive process. But this drive may not always be conscious.

There is the presence of an internal drive in such processes. �To this drive or urge, whether it occurs in the conscious life of men and the higher animals war propose to give a single name�. horme�20 This activity of the mind is a fundamental property of life. It has various other names, like � the will to live� elan vital�, the life urge and the libido. Horme under one form or another has been the fundament postulate of amarck Butler, Bergso ad Bernard Shaw. McDougall took great pains to present the hormic theory of psychology as against the mechanistic interpretation of life and mind.

The hormic force determines experience and behavior. We get conscious experience because of this drive. The conscious experience takes the form of perception and understanding. Horme operates even in the unconscious behavior of owe animals. In the plants and animals were see it operate I the preservation of organic balance. In our own physical level. We circulate our blood, wr breathe and we digest our food, and all these are the expressions of the hormic energy. It operates at all legalese both in individual and the racial sense. 21  But the Horme expressed and presented by the Jaina philosophers could not be developed and annualized in terms of the modern psychology, because their analysis of Upayoga was purely an epistemological problem tempered with metaphysical speculation. They were aware of the fact that there is a purposive force which actuates and determines experience. This is clear from the distinction between jnana and darsana  as two forms of upayoga.

Citta or cetana as a characteristic of the our is important in Indian philosophy. In thr Dravyasamgradha, jiva is described as possessing cetaa from the nominal point of view. Cetana is a sort of incliatio, which arises rom upayoga. This inclination branches in two direction jnana and darsana. Darsana may be said to be undifferentiated knowledge. Janana is cognition defined the jiva has indinite jnana and darsaa but certain classes of Karman, like jananavaraiya and Darsanavaraniya tend to obscure and confuse the essential nature of the jiva. From the phenomenta point of view, darssaa ad jnana tend to manifest themselves in eight kinds of jnana and four kinds of darsana.

The possession of Upayoga raises the question whether the Jiva possesses upayoga and is yet different from it , or whether it is identical with it . the Nyaya theory does not recognise the identity of quality and its possessor . Jainism asserts that oly from the phenomenal point of view they are separable . In pancastikayasara we read �Only in common parlance do we distinguish darsana and jana.  But in reality there is o separation�  22  The  SOUL IS INSEPARABLE FROK Upayoga. Horme is an essential characteristic of the living organisms. It is manifested in the fundamental property experienced in the incest adjustments and adventures that make up the tissue of life and which may be called drive or felt tendency towards an end. 23 Animal life is not merely permeated by physical ad chemical processes; it is more tha that even the simplest animal is autonomous.