Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions - Jain View of Life
INTRODUCTION
SYNOPTIC PHILOSOPHY
APPROACH TO REALITY
THE JAINA THEORY OF THE SOUL
CRITIQUE OF KNOWLEDGE
  THE DOCTRINE OF KARMA IN JAINA PHILOSOPHY
 

THE PATHWAY TO PERFECTION

 

IN THIS OUR LIFE

  MEN OR GODS
 

GENERAL INDEX


Chapter-4 : CRITIQUE OF KNOWLEDGE

 

Mind is characterise by mental processes ike doubtig, imagaining, dremaing and expercting. It is also characterised by pleasure and pain and desires. These are the distinguishing marks of mind.12  The Nandisutra describes mind as that which grasps everything saarvartha- grahanam manah .13    In  the Tattavarthasutra, we are told that cognition of what is stated on authority, as in scripturesis is the object of mind srutam anindriyasa.14 In maitri Upanisad mind is described I its reflective aspect as source of all mentalmodifications. He sees by mind by mind he hears, and by mind too, he experiences all that we call desire, will and belilef, resolution, irresolutio. All this is but mind itself.15  In modern psychology also , wundt says that mind will be the subject �to whih we attribute all theseparate facts of internal experience.� Mind , in the popular thought, is ot simply a subject in the logial sense, but a sustance in real being, ad the various activities of the mind are its expressions or notions. But this invlves, he says, some metaphysical presuppositions. For him, mind is a logical concept of interal experience.16  The Abhidhanarajendra metions that the word manas has a functional sifnificance,because it describes the funtions of the mind like thinking, imagining ad expectiig.17  andfrom this functional significance of the mind the srutcture of the mind is unferred. The Jaina thinkers make a distinction between two phases of mind dravya manas and bhava manas (manah divividham dravya manah bhava-bhava-manas ca). In the visesavasyakabhasya, we geta descroption of the tow phases of the manas. The materia mind which may be called the menta structure, is composed of infiite, fineand coherent particle fo matter meant for function of mind- dravyatah deavyamanah. It is further described as a collection of fine particles which are meant for exciting thought processes due to the yoga arising out of the contat of the jiva with the body.18  In the Gommatasara: Jiva-kanada also there is a description of the material mind as produced in the heart from the comingof mind molecules like a full blow lotus with eight petals.19

      Sucha description of mind as dravya manas and bhava manas, the srutctural and the psychical aspect, can be compared to the descriptionof mind given by some modern philosophers. C.D.Broad , in his Mindand its place in nature presents a similar view. It is a modicication of the insturmental theory according to which mind is a substance that is existentialy independet of the body. For Broad, mind is composed of twofactors neither of which is ad for itself has the property of mind, but which whe combined exhibits menta properties. The factors are the bodily and the psychic factors. It is comparable to a chemical compound ike Nacl and H20  in which the individual components lose their individual identit when composed of living body possessed of I) the nervous system and somethig else and ii) the psychic factor, which possesses some feeling like mental.20  The bodily factor is described as �the liig brain and the nervous system�. About the psychic factor, Broad seems to be vague.21  Neithermental characteristics not mental evets seem to belong to it. It is likely to be sentience only. However, the pshchic factor must be capable of persistig for a period at least after tha death of the body; and it must be capable, when separted from the body, of carryig �traces� of experience which happen to the mind of which it was formerly a constituent. In other words. It must coprise the �mnemic mass�. Broad�s view comes nearer to the Buddhist vinana, rather to the Jaina view of bhava manas. Of all the psychic factors in the Buddhist view. Vinnaa has morepermaent nature. I the Dighanikaya it is mentioned that agter death the body is dissolved mind ceases, but vinnana, the coefficent of the desire to enjoy, clings to produce its effects in some other embryo waking wsewhere.22  with this differerene of the psychic factor the Jaina distinction between the dravya manas ad the bhava manas corresponds with Broad�s theory of the compositio of mind. In speakig of the mental structure. Mcdougall has likened it to the structure of a machine. Howeve, mcdougall also warns us that it shsould not be taken in the sense of material structure of arrangement of parts. He likens it more to the compostiton of a poem of music. �the structure of the mind is a sonceptual system that we have to build up by inference from the date of the two orders , facts of behaviour and the facts of intropection.�23  The same ca be said of the composition of the manas.

      Each Jiva has its own mind,aothough the general nature of mindis one: mano laksanatvena sarvamanasam ekatvat�because the essential nature of mind is the expression of metal states. In the situation, the Fods, men and Asuras have each his won mind. In the Rattavarthasutra, the classifiction of the souls, five sensed organisms with minds, is mentioned; sajininah samanakah.25  In the five- sensed organisms only some possess minds comparative psychologists like akohler and Alverdes have shown that mind in the devrloped form is possible in case of higher animals having insight. Naiyayaikas also believe that each organism possesses a mind and sensitive organs in order that it may be in a position to cognoze the objects and to experience pleasure and painin accordance with past Karman. Each self has one mind, because a singel mind of atomic magnitude cannot be shared by all. This mind in each self can funtion only inside the organism with which the self is connected.26  if the Jiva was sarvagata, there would be cognition of everything by everyone.27  Theirarguments were metaphysical and epistemologial than pschological. But modern psychoogy has analysed the same problem from te psychological pioint of view. McDougall writes,� it seems probable that mind has the same nature wherever and whenever it exists or manifests itself, whether in animals, men or superhuman beigs, whether I the new-born infant, the fool or the wise man. On the other hand, the structure of the mind seems to be peculiar to each individual;� not only is it different in the various species of animals (if they hae minds) and in man; but the structure of the mind of e man is different from that of every other man; ad in any one man at each stage of his career or life-history, it is not quite the same as at any other stage.28