Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions - Jain View of Life
INTRODUCTION
SYNOPTIC PHILOSOPHY
APPROACH TO REALITY
THE JAINA THEORY OF THE SOUL
CRITIQUE OF KNOWLEDGE
  THE DOCTRINE OF KARMA IN JAINA PHILOSOPHY
 

THE PATHWAY TO PERFECTION

 

IN THIS OUR LIFE

  MEN OR GODS
 

GENERAL INDEX


Chapter-5 : THE DOCTRINE OF KARMA IN JAINA PHILOSOPHY

 

C.J. Jung, while distinguishing, personal and the collective unconscious, hints at the possibility of comparing the archetypes of the collective Unconscious to the Karma in Indian thought the collective unconscious stands for the objective psyche. The personal layer ends at the earliest memories of infancy, but the collective layer comprises the pre-infantile period that is the residue of ancestral life. The force of Karma works implicitly and determines the nature and development of personality. The Karma aspect is essential to the deeper understanding of theatre of an archetype. 8  Although it is possible to say that Karma has essentially a reference4 to individual differences and hence a personal acquisition, yet each India has a common heritage which he shares with the community and which shapes his being. The archetypes refer to the common heritage. To this extent they regret to the Karma aspect.

However, Jung was primarily concerned with and interpretations of dermas and fantasies in presenting his theory of the collective unconscious. He would have reached the doctrine of Karma the store-house of the physical ad psychical effective of the past.

It is difficult say who ans. where the Karma doctrine originated in India. Some have traced the origin of Karma in the principle of Rta. Rta is the socmic principle. It pervades the whole world, and gods and man must obey it. It is the anticipation of the law of Karma. In the revedic hymns the doctrine of Karma is yet in its infancy as Rta. The doctrine does not appear in the old hymns of the  Rgeda. The edit seers were mainly interested in the good of this life, and when death came they went the way of their fathers to the world where Yaa, the first to die ruled. The doctrine us have developed against a number of other doctrines about creation. Some regarded time as the determinant factor of creation. Others believed in nature(svabhava)as the prominent factor. There were other theories as well. The Jainas rejected these doctrines and said that even time and svabhava are determined by Karman. 10  Concept of Karma  must have existed at least a thousand years before the beginning of the Christian era, and has since become the basis ad center of religious though.11 it  is probable that Karama and rebirth must have been pre-Aryan doctrines which  were important in the Sramaba culture later assimilated in the Brahman thought by the time the Upanishads were clearly formulated. The India view of Karma was doubtless of on Aryan province, and it was a kind of a natural loaw.12  Transmigration of the soul was perhaps one of the oldest forms in which the belief in the after-life was held. Karma was closely liked with this doctrine. With the gradual emphasis of asceticism under the influence of the sramana culture, came the awareness of one�s responsibility to shape one�s personality here and here-after. However, the doctrine has been widely accepted in ancient Indian thought, except for the Caravaka. In the samnyasa Upanisad we are told that the Jiavas are bound by Kara. 13   and while thus we  feted yourselves with the effect of our deeds. In  the Mahabharata, the emphasis  is on the force of Karma. Of the three kinds of Karma , prarabdha, samcita ad agami mentioned in the Bhagavadgita, agami and samcita can be overcome by knowledge. In Buddhism, as there is no substance as soul,  what transmigrates is not a person but his Karma. When the series of mental states which constitutes the self resulting from a chain of acts ends, there would still be some acts and their effects which sontumue; and the vijnana projects into the future duce to the course of the effects of Karma. The Buddihista distinguish acts accompanied by asrava (impure acts)  from pure acts which are not accompanied by asrava. Samasara is the effect  of Karma. Our present happiness and misery are the fruit of what we have ourselves done in the past. Operation of Karma can be considered as a principle of more life, as force limiting and particularizing personality as as a principle of conservation of energy in physical world.15  but Buddhism maintains that involuntary actions, whether of body, speech and mind do not constitute karma, ad there fore cannot bring about the results accruing to karma. It only means that unwilled actions do not modify characte.16 Karma theory has been expressed in a variety of ways �from the most extreme realism which regard Karma as a compledity of arterial particles in fetching the soul to the most extreme idealism where it is a species of newly produced invisible force, it its highest unreal the Jainas give a realistic view of Karma. It has existed from the pre-Buddhist time. The idea of the pollution of the soul due to Karma has been largely allegorical in other religious philosophies in India, while the Jainas �have adopted it in the ra sense of the word� and have worked out into an original system.17  the Jaina conception of Karma must have been completely developed agter a thousand years of Mahavira�s nirvana.  The Sthanaaga, Uttaradhayaana- sutra ad the Bhagavatisutra contain genera outline of the doctrine, ad the details have been worked out in the karmagrantha, pancasmgraha and the Karmaprakriti. In working out the details there  have been two schools of thought: I) agamiskas and

ii) Karmagranithikas.

Jainism is, in a sense, dualistic. The universe is constituted of the two fundamental categories: jiva (living) and ajiva (non-living) sou (jiva) has been decribed from the numeral and the phenomenal  points of view, jiva  is pure and perfect. It is simple an without parts. It is immaterial and formless. 18  it is characterise but etana. It is pure consciousness. From the phenomenal point of view Jiva is described as possessing four pranas. It is the lord (prabhu,) limited to his body (dehanaatre,) still incorporates and it is ordinarily found with Karma.19  the jiva comes in contact with the external world, alive the Jiva is active, and the activity is expressed in threefold forms-the bodily, in speech and mental . this is called yoga . Yoga brings its after �effects in the form of karmic particles which veil the pure nature of the soul. The souls are contaminated by the Karma which is a foreign element, and are involved in the wheel samsara.  This contamination is beginningless, though it his an end. It is difficult to say how and when sould got included in the wheel of samsara. Caught in the where of Samasara the soul forgets it serial nature and the efforts ot reach for the truth are obscured by the passions. The inherent capacity of the soul for self-realization is also obstructed by the veil of Karma.20  It is subjected to the forces of Karma which express themselves first through feelings and emotions, and secondly in the chains of very subtle kinds of matter invisible to the eye and the instruments of science. It is then embodied and is affected by the environment, physical and social and spiritual. We, thus get various types of soul existence.