Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions - Jain View of Life
INTRODUCTION
SYNOPTIC PHILOSOPHY
APPROACH TO REALITY
THE JAINA THEORY OF THE SOUL
CRITIQUE OF KNOWLEDGE
  THE DOCTRINE OF KARMA IN JAINA PHILOSOPHY
 

THE PATHWAY TO PERFECTION

 

IN THIS OUR LIFE

  MEN OR GODS
 

GENERAL INDEX


Chapter-5 : THE DOCTRINE OF KARMA IN JAINA PHILOSOPHY

 

Karma , according to the Jainas, is material nature. It is matter I a subtle form and it is a substantive force. It is constituted of finer particles of matter. The kind of matter fit to manifest Karma fills the universe. It has the special property of developing the effects of merit and demerit. By it activity due tot the contact with the physical world, the soul becomes penetrated with the particles of karmic body (karma sarira) which is constantly attached to the soul till it succeeds to be free from it. �nowhere has the physical nature of karma been asserted with such stress as in Jinism.21  A more fact produces a psycho-physical quality, a read and not merely a symbolic mark, aggecting the soul in its physical nature this point of view has been worked in detail in the form of in form of mathematical calculations, in the karrmagrantha.

The Jaina tradition distinguishes two aspects:  I) the physical aspect (drvya-karman) and ii) the psychic aspect (bhava-karman.) The physicals aspect comprises the particles of Karma (karma-pudgala) accruing into the soul and polluting it. The psychic aspect is primarily the mental states ad events arising out of the activity of mind, body and speech. They are like the mental traces of the actions, as we experience the mnemonic traces long after the conscious states experienced vanish. The physical and the psychic Kara are mutually related to each other as cause and effect.22  The distinction between the physical and the psychic aspects of Karma is psychologically significant, s it presents the interaction of the bodily ad the mental due to the incessant activity of the soul.

This bondage of the soul to karman is of four types according t nature (parkarit ) duration (sthiti) intensity (anubhaga or rasa )  and quantity (pradesa.)23

Karma can be distinguished into eight types: 1) jana carnaiya, that which obscures right knowledge; 2)darsanavara niya that which obscure  right intuition: 3) vedaniya, arousing affective states like feelings and emotion: 4) mohaniya, that which deludes right faith: 5) ayus- karman, determining the age of the individual; 6) nama karman, which produces various circumstances collectively making up an individual existence, like the body and other special qualities of individuality; 7) gotra-karman, which determines the family, social standing etc; of the individual; and 8) atarya �karman which  obstructs the inborn energy of the sow and prevents the doing of good actions.

Each  kind of karma has its limits in time within which it must exhaust itself. The accumulated karma brings a trances dental he or hallo to the soul which is called lesya. There are six Lesyas. These Lesyas have predominantly a moral resultant.

Karma is substantive force. It has the property of developing the eggects of merit and demerit. The Karmic particles build up a special body which is called karma-sarira which does not leae the soul  till its emancipation. Karma has its psychic effects also. Bhava-karma is immediate to the Jivas while Dravya-karman belongs to the body. Five classes of Karmic coditions ar mentioned . on account of the rise  (udaya), suppression (upasama),annihilation (ksaya), suppression ad annihilation (ksayopasama) and psychological effect  (parinama), the soul has ice conditions of thought and existence.24 In the usual course of things, Karma takes effect and produces results. The soul is said to be in audayika state. Karma may be prevented from its operation for sometime. In this stte it is still present, like fire covered by ashes. The soul is in the aupasamika state it is still present, like fire overhead by ashes. The soul is in the aupasamika state. When Karma is annihilated, it is in a kasayika state. The fourth state is the mixed state. The last, unconditioned state leads to moska.