Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions - Jain View of Life








I. Moksa is the ideal of life. Supernormal experiences, like the yogaja- pratyaksa, arsa, and avadhi, manahparyaya are only incidental. Kevala is symptomatic of the realization of the consummate end of life. Moksa is to be realized through self-discipline in the affective, the cognitive and cognitive sense. Samyak- crater is as important as Samyag-darsana and jana. The way to self-realization is primarily ethical. �if deliverance is to be chained, the lower matter is to besubdued but the higher spirit. When the soul is free from the weight which keeps it down , it rises to the top of the universe where the liberated dwell. The radical conversion of the inner man is way to freedom.�

The Jainas were that physic and mental discipline are necessary conditions of moral discipline. Knowledge and faith are preliminary steps on the path of self- realization. Ordinary sources of knowledge ar not adequate to comprehend the nature of truth. Reason fails here. Kant showed that categories of understanding are fraught with antinomies. One has to transecen reason and seek the truth in the supernormal forms of experience. Inplicit faith in the truth to be sought in is necessary. It is the starit pint of self-realization. Samkara�s prescription of the four qualifications of a student of philosophy, as stated in the commentary on the first sutra of the vednata Sutra, is very pertinent in the case of those who seek the truth. There are different processes which lead us from faith to the realization of the final end. Meditation (dhyana) is an important factor in this process. One cannot gas the truth unless one mediates on it; and one cannot realize it unless one grasps it meditation on the nature of the self is the highest form af Dhyana. One reaches the stage of meditation these if whe one is free from passions and is self- controlled, self-controls is in turn, possible through the practice of physical and mental discipline. Thus the ancient Indian philosophers developed a science of self-realization called yoga. They have bee ingeneral agreement regarding the principles and practice of Yoga, the Yoga presceibed by panatela regard moral and physical discipline to the indispensable preliminaries to the spiritual progress. The Jainas are in agreement with the fundamental principles and practice of this system. Among the Jaina authors Haribhadra gives a comparavtie sudey of Yoga in his works the janarnava of subhacandra and the Yoga sastra of hemachandra are valuable contributions to the study of Yoga as a science of spiritual progress.

II. In ancient India, yoga was a science of self- realization. The word occurs in reveda meaning �bringing about conection�. In the atharva-veda is stated that supernatural powers are attained by the ascetic practices.2  Later it was used I the sense of yoking a horse. The senses have been compared to the unbridled horses and Yoga is the means of controlling the horses.3   in the Jaina literature, Harbhadra defines Yoga as that which leads one to emancipation�, and the terms dhyana and samadhi were more in vogue than yoga. It is only in the yoga-sutra of pjatanli that we find the proper location of Dhyana in the whole pores called yoga.5  However, panatela probably did not start the Yoga school, but he must have �cooected the different forms of practices and gleaned the diverse ideas which were and could be associated white Yoga�. 6   yoga a we see now is to be considered as fully developed science of self- realization.

The yogatattva upanisad mentions four types of Yoga: 1)Hathayoga is one in which the primary aim is to control bodily activities. 2)Mantra- yoga aims at healing the diseased by means of mantra or incantations of certain esoteric hymns. It is base of the influence of suggestion as psychologiva factor. 3)Layayaoga is based o the physiological analysis of human organism. The aim is to effect concentration of an image through the Mantras and to be absorbed and lost in them . 4) the last is Rajayoga. It is prtanjala Yoga. Its aim is higher; and it consists in achieving spritula beatitude, though bodily control is a part of Patanjali�s yoga. According to S dasagupta. The Yoga practices grew in accordance with the doctrines of the saiva and skta schools and assumed a peculiar form as the Manrayoga. They grew in another direction as Hathayoga throygh constant practices of nervous exercises and produced mystical feats.7  The influence of these practices in the development of Tantra was also great. Jaigisaya in his Dharamastra mentions different parts  of the body like heart , tip of the nose, plate, forehead and the centre of the brain as centres of menory where concentration made. 8