Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions - Jain View of Life








Moral discipline is a necessary condition for the practice  of Yoga leading to spiritual relization. The purpose of moral discipline is to remove the bondage due to Karma. The Jaina theory of morality is centred round the prici;le of ahimsa, nonvilokence. Patanjali also gives prminance to non-viliece I moral discipline. The Jainas have ditinguised two levels in the practive of orality: I) for the lay follower (sravaka), and ii)for the ascetic (muni). However, some general principles are embided in their theory of moraity. Five vartas (vows) are to be practise more rigorousy by the Muni but with less rigour by the lyman. In the fomer case they are called Mahavratas and in the latter Anuvratas. The five vows are I)ahimsa (non violence),ii)satya (truth, )iii) astey  (nonstealing), iv) brahmacarya (cellibacy ) and v) aparigraha a bstinence from personal  possessions) 9.  A  number of ways have been prescribed for the observation of the gows. For instance, regulation of movement (iryasamiti) , and control  of thought (manogupti) are prescribed for the practice of non-violence. What is important is the cultivation of equanimity and indifference to the things of the world. Frendship (maitri) right understanding (praoda) compassion (karunya) and indifference towards evil (madhyasthya) are qualities necessary for oral preparation to be developed by one seekig self- realisiation. 10  This in bried is the moral practice as a background to self realization. In te yoga sutra, yama and niyama are ethical preparations for Yoga . wihtout this moral tranining, practice of yoga will not suceceed. Yama is negative in alue; and Niyama gives the code of observance. The five vows mentioned buy the Jainas are also given by patyanjali.11   The  yama is unicersal validity regardless of diffececes of aste and aoucnty, age and condition.12  Niyama is for self-prufication. The observances are ausetrity (tapas), aontentment (saatosa ) purification (sauca) and devotion t Fod (isvara- pranidhana ) By practising Yama and Niyajma one develops Ivairagaya or detachment and freedom from desires. It is only to be means to the attaiment of the proper comditions for self- realization. In this sense, patanjali�s yoga is a scienctific deiscipline. The idea of God is a useful hyphtiesis which gives oa focus, a pulley ring as it wre , on which the weight of consciouness can be lifted.13   similaiarly for Haribhadra, Yoga consists of hreligious cativity of far as it leads one to fail emancipation, though there is no place for god in Jainism. Haribhadra gives promithere is not place for god in Jainism. Haribhadra gives prominence to five types of practices in Yoga: I) sthaana (properposture ) ii) urna ( orrect uttenance ofr sound), iii) artha ( proper understnding ) and iv) alamabaa (concentration of abstract attributes of Tirthankara.14 The first two of these are externa activites prepartory to the practive of concentation. The last three are inne activity (jana-yoga)  those who have reached the fifth stage of Gunasthana (spritiual progress), viz Desairata samyagdrsti aca  practise yoga. Sthana and urna are qualifying conditions for practisisng Dhyaa (concentration) 15    The Jnanarnava describes ith conditions of Asana. A self controlled man may select a sutable place, like the top of mountain, the bank of a river , etc, for the practice of concetration. Some asanas like paryanka, vira , subha and kamala aree said to be most sutabe, the object of an asana is to enabe one to be free from physical discomfort and the consequent mental distraction. 16  Similarly pranayama is a preparation for the concetaration of mind. Subhacandra, ike patanjali realised the importance of Pranayama. Three forms of praayama were suggested: I)puraka, ii)kumhaka and  iii)Recaka.17 Pratyahara is given an important place in the stages of Yoga. Here the senses are withdrwan from the external object and ficed on the internal function. 18   however, the ethical preparation. Asana pranayama and pratyahara are only accessories to Yoga and not themselves elements of it. 19  in the practice of Dhyana, the first stage is concatenation  on the image of tirthankara . this is the concrete symbol for concentration. After achieving steadfastness in this conception, one should practice aocncentration n the abstract qualities of a tirthankara. The practice of Yoga is closely connected with the various stages of spiritual realization (unasthana)  Dhyaa is in its primary stage in the seventh Gunasthana ( appramata- samyata) The urge to self- realization leads us to the eighth stage of Gunasthana, called Apruvaa- karnana: greater self- control and a more definite progress on the path of self-realization are possible in this stage . steadfastness of concentration gradually develops till one reaches the twelfth stage of Gunasthana, called ksina mha ins which the passions are altogether subdued . in this stage, the tranccendetal self is possible to be realized. 20   We have, here analambana yoga. This is the state of omniscience. It is often compared to the asamprajnata samdhi of patanjali. 21  Still there is a higher stage of self- realization. In the fourteenth storage of Gunasthana called ayogakevali a activity is stopped; and the soul attains final emancipation. It is analogous to the dharmamegha of the  panatela�s system,. To the amrataman of  another system and to the para of still another.