Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions - Jain View of Life








As one oges ascending the stages of self realization and practice of yoga, one gradually develops the perspective of truth (dristi) This gradual development has been classified into eight stage : mitra, tar, bala, dipra, sthira, kanta, probha, and para. The  eighth drsitis are capered to the eight fold stages (astanga of patajlli;s yoga ). 23    As higher in the sgages of Drsti the perspective of truth becomes clearer; and finally, in the last stage one reechoes the Samadhi, the consummation of Dhyana.

          Practice of yoga may be actuated by I) love (priti) ii) reverence (bhakti), iii) duty prescribed by scriptures (agama) and iv)no consideration (asmga.) When the spiritual activity is done out of oe or recurrence, it leads t worldly or other worldly property (abhyudaya. ) if it is done as a duty or with no motive whatever it leads to final emancipation.24 

          But Haribhadra is aware of some fiddiculites in the practice of Yoga and the attainment of supernormal experience. He says that we have to overcome some physical and mental inhibition before processing the Yoga exercises. The mind of the common man (prthaagijanacitta) is vitiated by many defects. Eight defects have been mentioned: I) inertia (kheda), ii)anxiety (udvega). ii) unsteadiness (bharanti) vi)attraction for what is not desirable (anyamud), vii) mental disturbance (ruk) and viii) attachment (samaga)25

            In the practice of Yoga on is likely to acquire some physical and mental powers which are beyond the common man. But these are distractions, and would lead us away from the final goal, the Jainas were primarily concerned eith purification of the soul and the development of detachment from the things of the world. They were against the use of paranormal powersand miracles. This was the genera view of other Indian philosopher as well patanjali mentions the acquisition of such powers by the Yogi and warns him against temptations associated with these powers. 26 The Yoga beeches that the citta of ma is like a milstone if we put wheat under  it , it grinds it into flour if we put nothing under it, it grinds on until it grinds itself away.

          In the highest stage omniscience (kevala) is attained. This is not merely negative state of knowledge. In this one gets experience of everything, past present and future, as if an a moment. In the highest form of samadhi according to patanjali al possibility of confusion between the self and the captivity of the citta ceases.

          Concentration of mind (dhyana )is an essential factor as a means to spiritual realization. The lower self sometimes gets the vision of perfection in its purified state ad aims at the attainment of this ideal. On the attainment vision knowledge the self rises to its own our state (paramatama) Dhyana is the concentration of thought in a particular object 28  for a certain length of time. The duration of concentration depends n the bodily constitution. The duration of concentration depends on the bodily constitution. The maximum time concentration can be for one antrmuyhurta (about foresight Mounties )29 Dhyana is further inauspicious (aprasata) and auspicious (prasata) A presets Dhyana leads to the influx of karma (asrava) and the bondage of the soul to the wheel of life (bandha). The auspicious Karma brigs about dissociation and destruction. Artadhyana is painful concentration, as whe we experience the pain in the loss of a lode object or in the anguish of an unsatisfied desire. Taudradhyana is vengeful concentration as whe, smarting under the injury of insult we contemplate on thinking revenge. 30  They express the pain of unsatisfied instinctive urges and are rotted in the anima nature of man. The Jaina analysis of the lower types of Dhyana has a great psychological importance and need to be Dhamadhayana and sukladhyana are conditions of spiritual progress. The nature of revelation, the fact of suffering the  operation of karma ad the structure of the universe are object of Dharmadhyaa. Umasvati defines Dharmadhyana as a collection of scattered thought (snrtisamanvahar) for the sake of meditation of the objects of concentration. Jnana ( knowledge),Darsaa (intuition Caritra (good conduct) and virigarya (non attachment) are needed for developing the steadfastness f mind for attaining concentration. 31  A beginner has to select a suitable lonely place and convenient time. Several placed made holy by the sages create a better atmosphere for Dharmadhyana.32  Dharmadhyana is possible from the fought to the seventh stage of Guasthana. As en good higher up I the spiritual development one would have developed sufficient physical and mental strength to aim at the final emancipation. The Jaina analysis f right concentration (Dharamadhyana) is intimately woven int the moral texture in this life. One has to practise the four-fold virutes: mairtri (feiendship), pramoda (apprectiation or the merits of other ), karuna (compassion) and madhyasthya ( undisturbed equanimity) as the pre-requisites of this type of concentration. 33  And in the graded level of concentration the consummation is reached when the pure and perfect self is the object of cndetration. The same type of concentration is to be reached in sukladhyana except for the fact that in the Sukadhyana we get perfect concentration.