Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions - Jain View of Life
INTRODUCTION
SYNOPTIC PHILOSOPHY
APPROACH TO REALITY
THE JAINA THEORY OF THE SOUL
CRITIQUE OF KNOWLEDGE
  THE DOCTRINE OF KARMA IN JAINA PHILOSOPHY
 

THE PATHWAY TO PERFECTION

 

IN THIS OUR LIFE

  MEN OR GODS
 

GENERAL INDEX


INTRODUCTION

Perface to the First Edition

          Man is `homo sapiens�. He has bulit civilizations and destroyed them too. Magnificent empires were built, mighty in their day. It was difficult to doubt their power. But their day is done and their courts `the lion and the lizard keep�. We have seen the phenmimenal advancement of science in our own day. As we gaze at the incredible rapidity of scientific progress we are losing touch with the spiritual side of man. We are on cross- roads of life, between two worlds; `one dead and the powerless to be born�. We see everywhere social and political chaos. There is distrust and frustration, and for a decade or more we have lived on the brink of another world war more disastrous than the earlier too, which would mean total destruction of human race. Whether it would mean pralaya we do not know. But when it comes we can only see the broken bits of civilization, if we are to survive this catastrophe. And all this is due to a wrong approach to the understanding of the problems of life and experience. A new kind of a materialism is being emphasised today wherin we pay exclusice attention to material comforts and ignore the higher values. But to understand life and nature we have to transcend the narrow partial points of view and adopt a synoptic view of life. We have to realize that others� points of view have also to be considered and respected. Dogmatic approach of looking at the problems leads to intolerance and then to violence. Jainas have preached the synoptice view of life in their theory of Anekanta. It emphasises the catholic outlook towards life. Intellectual non-violence, respect for other points of view are the key-note of this doctrine, and that would be a panacea for all the ills of our social and political life today. Jainism is an ancient religion which prevailed even before Vardhamana Mahavira, the twenty-fourth and Par�sva the twentythird Tirtha�nkaras.  It is a pre-Aryan religion coming from the Sramana current of thought, and Sramana thought was prevailing in India long before the Aryans came to this country. The antiquity of Jainism as reflecting the Pre-Aryan thought of the upper class of North-Eastern India has now been established beyond dispute. Jaina tradition is unanimous in making Rsabha the first Tithankara as the founder of Jainism. Long before the Aryans  reached the Ganges or even Sarasvati, Jainism, had been taught by prominenet saints or Tirthankaras, prior to the historical twentythird Parsva of the eighth or ninth century B. C. Many Wwstern scholars like Jacobi, Vincent Smith, Furlong and Zimmer have accepted the Pre-Aryan prevalence of Jainism. Radhakrishanan accepts the view that Jainism pre-valied in India even before Parsava and Vardhamana, the last two Tirthankaras. Hiralal Jain has interpreted the mention of Kesi and Kesi Rsabha in the Rgveda as referring to the first Tirthankara. When Buddhism arose Jainism was already an ajncient sect with its strong hold near about Vaisali which was visited and admired by Buddha. 

          The Anekanta outlook of the Jainas pervades their entire philosophy and life. The whole texture of Jaina philosophy and ethics is woven in the Anekanta attitude. We have accordingly analysed in this treatise some of the conceptions in Jaina philosophy and ethics as reflecting the Anekanta outlook. Jiva has been considered from the noumenal and the phenomenal points of view. From the noumenal points of view it is pure and perfect, and from the phenomenal it is the agent and the enjoyer of fruits of Karama. Our experience can be graded into levels as the sense and the supersensuous experience. Jiva in its empirical existense is involved in the wheel of Samsara through the Yoga (activity). This involvement is beginningless, though it has an end. The end is freedom from the wheel of life and the attainment of Moksa. For this we have to remove the Karma that has accrued to the soul. The Jainas have worked out an elaborate theory of Karma almost making it a science. The Anekanta view pervades the analysis of Karma. Karma is substantive force. It is material in nature. It consists of fine particles of matter, which are glued to the soul as soot to the surface of the mirror. The influx of Karma leads to bondage of Jiva to the wheel of life. The i) nature (prakrti), duration (sthiti), intensity (anubhagha) and quantity (pradesa) of Karma determine this bondage of soul to Karma. Karma has its psychological aspect also in the Bhava-karma.

          Moksa is to be achieved through the triple path of right intuition, right knowledge and right conduct. The belief in the Tattvas is the right faith, knowledge of the real is right knowledge and freedom from attachment and aversion is right conduct. The path of virtue is the path, which leads to self- realization. The five Vratas are fundamental for the Jainas. However, the practice of the Vratas and the ethical life has been graded in two levels as duty of a muni (ascetic) and the life of sravaka (lay follower). The purpose is to realize the highest gradually and with ease. In this analysis of ethical concepts we find the application of the spirit of Anekanta. The same can be found in their interpretation of Ahimsa as an ethical principle. The Jaina attitude to the conception of God expresses the spirit of Anekanta. The Jainas are against the Theistic conception of God. But each soul in its pure and perfect form is divine. Still the Tirthankaras are worshipped not because they are gods but because they are human, yet divine �to be kept before us as ideals for emulation. Apart from the worship of the Tirthankaras, we find a pantheon of gods as a social survival and a psychological necessity.

          Life is to be considered as a struggle for perfection. We do not get ready-made views. We have to look at life through manycoloured glasses and as a �vale of soul making�. This is the picture of Jaina outlook on life as presented in this book. It may, perhaps, give a discrete picture. The purpose has been to see some of the problems in the light of synoptic point of view as expressed in the Anekanta.

          The metaphysical elements of Jainism have not been discussed in detail as the main object of this work has been to present the Jaina view of life, However, principle of asrava, bandha samvara and nirjara have been incidentally woven in the texture of the scheme while describing the entanglement of the soul in samsara and the efforts to attain Moksa. Jiva and Moksa are the prius and the end of the noumenal world.  We have studied them at length.

          This priblem has been engaging my attention for some time past, and it has developed in the form of this book at the inspiration and guidance of Dr. A. N. Upadhye of Kolhapur. I gave a synopsis of this work in my talk at the Jaina Boarding at Kolhapur during the Paryusana festival in 1963. I have made use of two chapters from my earlier book�Some Problems in Jaina Psychology. I can grateful to the Register, Karnatak University, Dharwad for permitting me to use this material from my previous book. I have incorporated in this book some of my articles already published in different philosophical Journals by retouching them here and there to form a part of this book.

          I am grateful to the Editors and Publishers of these Journals for their permission to use my articles in the book. I must express my gratitued to the late Professor Charles A. Moore, of the Universty of Hawaii, Honolulu (U. S. A ) for permitting me to use my article The Doctrine of Karma in Jaina Philosophy published in Philosophy East and West, a Journal of Oriental and Comparative Thought, Volume XI, Numbers 3 and 4 July, October 1965. I have intended, in this book, to weave out some of my papers published earlier so as to bring out a coherent picture of the Jaina view of life as expressing the Anekanta outlook. I must express my sense of profound gratitude to Dr. A. N. Upadhye for all the encouragement and guidance he has given me. I thank the authorities of the Jaina Samskrti Samraksaka Sangha, Sholapur, for publishing this work. I thank my colleague Shri S. R. Gunjal, M.A., M.Lib. Sc. for assisting me in going through the proofs.


Dharwad                                                              T. G. Kalghatgi

31-3-69

 

Preface to the Second Edition

           I have pleasure in presenting the second edition of the Jaina View of Life.  I am grateful to the scholars of the Jaina Studies for their kind appreciation.  In this edition I have revised some portions of the papers included in the first edition.  I have added the following Papers in this edition �1.  Right Uderstanding �Some Hurdles, published in Studies in Indian philosophy (L. D. Institute of Indology, Ahmedabad 1981) and 2.     Jaina Mysticism published in the Proceedings of The Indian Philosophical Congress 1961-1965.

      I am grateful to The Jaina Samskrti  Samrakshaka Sangha, Sholapur for having got the book published in the second edition.  I sincerely thank M/s. Manohar Printing Press, Dharwad specially Shri Ravi Akalwadi, for the careful and fine printing of the book.


�Ratnatraya�                                                               T. G. Kalghatgi

Savamur Nawab Plots                                        Rtd. Professor of Jainology

Dharwad  580008                                                          and Prakrits,

University of Mysore. 


 

CONTENTS                 

                                                                                   PAGES

GENERAL EDITORIAL        ..                ..              ..          iii-iv

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION             ..          ..         v-viii

PREFACE TO THE SECONTD EDITION   ..               ..          ix

 

CHAPTER

SYNOPTIC PHILOSOPHY :  Meaning of philosophy �philosophy in India �istorical survey �a priori way leading to Absolutism far removed from the commonsense �empiricist way �logical positivism �leading philosophy to the brink of extinction �the way out to be found in the synoptic philosophy as expressed in the Anekanta view of the Jainas.       ..             ..                 3-11

 

II.     APPROACH TO REALLITY: Introduction�meaningn of  Anekanta

        --historiacal survey �development of the theory of Anekanta

       --Nayavada �analysis of the Nayas �Syadvada as a logiacal

        expression of Nayavada �Syadvada analysed �criticism of the

         theory �some observations �Right understanding �some Hurdles.  12-43

 

III.  THE JAINA THEORY OF THE SOUL: Conception of soul

        in philosophy �Jaina theory of soul �considered from

        noumenal and the phenomenal points of view �Upayoga as

        characteristic of soul �bahiratman antaratman and paramat-

        man �compared with distinction between �Me� and �I�  of

        Willian James �seat of the soul-classification of Samsari Jivas

        --freedom of soul from Samsara.       ..             ..                 ..        44-65

 

IV. CRITIQUE OF KNOWLEDGE : The Jaina attitude as empiricist and realistic �concept of mind �mind as a quasi-sense organ �the phases of mind.  Dravya-manas and Bhava-manas �instrumental nature of mind �consciousness �cetana �self-consciousness � nature of knowledge �sense and supersense experience -- nature of  knoledge �sense perception �stages of sense perception

- supersense experience and Avadhi, Manah-paryaya and Kevala as supersense experiences �some observations on the basis of modern researches in Parapsychology.       ..           ..                ..    66-105