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Kundakunda Pushpanjali




I.  Niyamasara ( Soul-Jiva )


II.  Non-Soul (Ajva)

  III.  Pure Thought-Activity, Shuddha Bhava

IV.  Practical Right Conduct, (Vyavahaar Charitra)

  V.  Repentance, (Pratikramana)
  VI.  Renunciation, (pratyakhyana)
  VII.  Confession, (Alochana)
  VIII.  Expiation, (Prayaschitta)
  IX.  Supreme Equanimity, (Parama Samadhi)
  X.  Supreme Devotion, (Parama Bhakti)
  XI.  Real Independence, (Nishchaya Avashaya)
  XII.  Pure Consciousness, (Shuddha Upayoga)

XIII.  Table

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          Niyamasara is one of the most renowned Adhyatmic works of Shri Kundakunda Acharya. He was the preceptor of Shri Uma Swami, the renowned author of Shri Tattwarthadhigama Sutra.

          The Sanskrit commentary of Niyamasara was written by Shri Padmaprabha Haladhari Deva, who. appears to have lived about 1000 A. D. He was preceded by Shri Amrit Chandra Acharya, who wrote Sanskrit commentaries on Panchastikaya, Pravachana-sara and Samayasara, the great monumental works on Jaina metaphysics by Shri Kundakunda Acharya. Padmaprabha has frequently quoted and referred to some of the verses of Amrit Chandira in his commentary on Niyamasara.

            The treatise is named Niyamasara, because it dales with the path of liberation which is Right Belief, Right knowledge and Right Conduct, the three jewels of faith combined. The word Niyama literally means, �rule or law,� and Sara means �the right�. Niyamasara thus signifies the Right Rule, i.e., the true and indispensable law for the attainment of liberation.

          The sole object and the whole gist of this treatise is to show that the all-pure, all-conscious, all-blissful and self-absorbed soul alone is the Siddha, a perfect soul. If a soul is in bondage with karmic matter, i. e., if it is imperfect, and under delusion, it is imperfection or delusion which is accountable for the continuance of transmigrations, and experiences of pain and pleasure. La order to obtain liberation, perfection, eternal beatitude. a soul must get rid of all connection with the Non-self. When this connection with the Non-self is completely severed, Siddha-pada, Perfection, is attained.


          Right Belief, Right Knowledge, and Right Conduct have been dealt with, from two points of view, the. real and the practical.

          The real is the only sure and direct path; while the practical is an auxiliary cause to the attainment of the real. Real path of liberation is absorption in �the self.

          Attachment and aversion, which include all passionate thought-activities; are the main cause of karmic bondage, while non-attachment, or pure thought-activity leads to freedom from bondage.

          1. Practical Right Belief is a true and firm belief in Apta, the all-accomplished, all-knowing, source of all knowledge, in the Agama, the Scripture, the written discourse, which first flowed from the omniscient, and in the Tattvas the Principles or categories.


          The Apta must have three special characteristics:-

          (a) Freedom from all defects such as hunger, fear, anger, delusion, (b) Omniscience and (c) non-volitional propagation of truth. Such are the Arhats, the adorable Lords, of whom the most prominent are the twenty-four Tirthankaras.

          Agama is the scripture composed by the highly learned and spiritually advanced saints from discourses which flowed from the Arhats. These scriptures are faultless and free from the flaw of inconsistency.

          Tattvas, the principle categories or substances are seven, (1) Jiva-soul, (2) Ajiva-non-soul, (3) Asrava-inflow, (4) Bandha-bondage, (5) Sam-vara-the check of inflow, (6) Nirjara-the shedding of previously bound up Karmas, and (7) Moksha-liberation from all Karmic contact.

          All that exists is included in one or other of the two principles, soul and non-soul. While a man is alive it is the soul in his body while perceives and knows all objects. A body without soul is incapable of perceiving or knowing anything. Material objects such as a pen, table or chair can not feel or know anything. They are unconscious or inanimate substances.

          I. The soul. It is the only conscious substance. Looked at from the real point of view even a mundane soul; is pure, peaceful, all-knowing and all blissful; It is potentially so. From the practical point of view such a soul experiences various kinds of pain and pleasure in different conditions of life.

          II. The Non-soul. It comprises the other five teal and independent substances, which, taken together with the soul, make up the six ( Dravyas) substances.

          (1) (Pudgala) � matter � is the most prominent, and plays a very important part in the amphitheater of the universe. The special attributes of matter-substance ( Pudgala ) are touch, taste, smell, and colour. It exists either in the form of atoms, or of molecules. Only gross molecules are cognizable by the senses; fire, electric and karmic molecules which compose the electric and the karmic bodies of all mundane souls are not cognizable by the senses.

          (2) Dharma Dravya. � Medium of motion � .is a single, immaterial substance, pervading throughout the whole of the universe. It is essentially an auxiliary cause of motion for soul and matter.

          (3) Adharma Dravya. � Medium of rest� is also a single, immaterial substance pervading .throughout the whole of the universe It is also an essentially auxiliary cause of rest for soul and matter.

(4) Akasha Dravya. � Space� is a single;-infinite immaterial substance. Its function is to give place to all substances.

          (5) Kala Dravya, � Time � is an immaterial substance. It is an auxiliary cause of bringing about modifications in all substances.


          III & IV. � Inflow � ( asrava ) and � (Bandha ).�

          Every mundane Soul has a karmic body, formed of karmic molecules. The universe is full of karmic molecules. Inflow of these molecules towards the soul caused by its own vibratory activities, through mind, speech, and body, is called Asrava. When these molecules are so attracted towards the soul, they are assimilated in (he existing karmic body. The causes of assimilation or bondage are the soul�s vibratory activities, and passions. This process is known as Bandha ( bondage ). The processes of Inflow and Bondage of Karmic matter go on simultaneously. The main auxiliary causes of them are;�


                    (a) Wrong belief ( Mithyatva).

                    (b) Vow-lessness ( Avirati).

                    (c) Passions ( Kashaya )

                    (d) Soul�s vibratory activities ( Yoga )


          V. Samvara. �Checking of Inflow� and �Bondage of Karmic� molecules, is called Samvara ( Stoppage ).

          The main auxiliary causes of stopping the inflow ,and bondage of karmic molecules are:�

          (a) Right belief.

          (b) Observance of vows.

          (c) Passionlessness. 

          (d)Restraint of soul�s vibratory activities


          VI. Nirjara- �The shedding of karmas� already-bound with a soul at maturity, or prematurely, is called Nirjara. The -premature : shedding of karmas is caused by pure thought-activities, brought about by the practice of right kind of austerities. The shedding on maturity is a natural and automatic process.


          Moksha. � Liberation� is freedom from all karmic matter as a result of the non-existence of the cause of bondage and the shedding off all karmas previously bound, ft is the state of a Siddha, the condition of perfection.


          Continuous devotion to Apta, study of the scriptures, and meditation of the seven principles, cause the subsidence of wrong belief (mithyatva) and of the four error-feeding passions ( anantanubandhi kashaya ) and as a consequence the real right belief which is an attribute of the soul, shines forth in its true splendour. At this stage the right believer is fully convinced of the true and pure nature of his own soul, and this is Real Right belief.



          I. Practical Right Knowledge is the acquisition of all the Jaina scriptures. This Right-Knowledge must be free from three main defects (a) doubt ( Samshaya), (b) Perversity ( Viparyaya ) and (c) Indefiniteness ( anadhyavasaya ). It reveals the complete and precise nature of things.

          II.  Real Right knowledge is to know the true and real nature of the soul as quite distinct from all other non-soul substances.

          Constant  contemplation of,  and  unflinching devotion to,  the subject matter of practical right knowledge is an auxiliary cause to the attainment of Right Knowledge.



          A right believer, who has fully realised the true and real nature of his own soul, and is bent upon getting rid of the karmic filth which is in bondage with his soul, tries to follow Right Conduct. His main object in doing so is to be free from attachment and aversion, and from all impure thought-activities and to attain the condition of equanimity.


          Practical right conduct consists in observing the following five vows:�

          (a) Ahimsa ... refraining from doing injury.

          (b) Satya ... refraining from falsehood.

          (c) Asteya  ... refraining from theft.

          (d) Brahmacharya ... Chastity, purity.

          (e) Aparigraha  ...  Non-attachment.