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Kundakunda Pushpanjali




I.  Niyamasara ( Soul-Jiva )


II.  Non-Soul (Ajva)

  III.  Pure Thought-Activity, Shuddha Bhava

IV.  Practical Right Conduct, (Vyavahaar Charitra)

  V.  Repentance, (Pratikramana)
  VI.  Renunciation, (pratyakhyana)
  VII.  Confession, (Alochana)
  VIII.  Expiation, (Prayaschitta)
  IX.  Supreme Equanimity, (Parama Samadhi)
  X.  Supreme Devotion, (Parama Bhakti)
  XI.  Real Independence, (Nishchaya Avashaya)
  XII.  Pure Consciousness, (Shuddha Upayoga)

XIII.  Table

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Chapter  XII - Pure Consciousness, (Shuddha Upayoga)



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          178.  ( A  perfect  soul  is really )  free  from obstructions, independent of the senses, unparalleled liberated from meritorious and demeritorious kariaas. ( Again it is } free from rebirths and is eternal, non-transient and independent.


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          179. Where there is neither pain, nor pleasure, nor annoyance, nor any obstruction, nor death nor birth; there only is Nirvana ( Liberation ).


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          180.  Where  there  are  neither senses, nor  is there any calamity, nor delusion, nor astonishment, nor  sleep, nor  desire, nor  hunger;  there only  is Nirvana,


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          181. Where there are neither any karmas, nor quasikarmas, nor is there any anxiety, nor painful or wicked concentration, nor righteous or pure concentration; there only is Nirvana.


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          182. ( In the state of Nirvana ) are found Perfect Knowledge, Perfect Bliss, Perfect Power, Perfect Perception, immateriality, Isness. ( Astitva ), spatiality (Pradeshatva) and formlessness (Amurtatva).


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          183. Nirvana means the Siddha ( the Liberated), and the Siddha means Nirvana; such has been said (by the Conquerors). A soul, liberated from karmas, goes up to the topmost of the Universe.


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          184. Movements of souls and matter should be known as co-extensive with the medium of motion ( Dharmastikaya ). They can not go further, because there is no medium of motion.


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          185. Niyama ( the path of Liberation ) and the fruit of that Niyama ( i.e , supreme Liberation ) have been described ( by me ), on being prompted by Devotion for Scriptures, ( Pravachana Bhakti ). If there are any inconsistencies ( in the description ), the scholars should remove them and make ( this treatise ) complete.


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          186. If any ( persons ) find fault with this lovely path ( of liberation ), simply through malice, then ( O disciple ) on hearing their words, do not be lacking in devotion to the path of the Conquerors.


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          187. Having understood the teaching of the Conquerors which are free from inconsistencies, I have composed this treatise styled as �Niyamasara,� with the main object of a self-meditation.



          A perfect- liberated soul is absolutely free from all sorts of impurities and it shines forth in its true nature, even when a soul is in the position of an Arhat, though it is still in bondage with the four non-destructive ( Aghatiya ) karmas; but it is free from all the four destructive karmas, which obscured its real attributes. As long as the non-destructive karmas are not exhausted, the soul of the Lord Arhat remains in a highly refined physical body ( Parama-audarika sharira ). The Omniscient Lords, being possessed of vibratory activities, move about and preach Truth to the world.

          Both the Siddhas and the Arhats are possessed of pure conscious attentiveness ( Shuddha Upayoga ), which includes both perfect conation and perfect knowledge. On account of the total destruction of the knowledge-obscuring and conation. obscuring karmas, both knowledge and conation exist and work simultaneously, just as light and heat exist in the sun and work simultaneously. In the case of souls, who have not attained omniscience, conation precedes knowledge; both do not work simultaneously. Natural .knowledge and natural conation, as described in Gathas II and 13 respectively, are the innate attributes of a soul; in other words they are the perfect knowledge and perfect conation, as found existing and working simultaneously in the omniscients.

          In the pure and perfect conation and knowledge of the omniscients all knowable objects are reflected, without any effort, whatsoever, on the part of the omniscient souls. Thus when it is said that from the real point of view, the omniscient soul knows the self only, it means that the soul knows the self together with the reflection of all the objects in the Universe and Non-universe simultaneously. It is only a mode of expression to say, that from the real stand-point, the omniscients know the self alone. As practical point of view deals with a substance having regard to its relation with other substances; wherefore i; is also quite true to say that from the practical point of view, the omniscients know all. It is merely another mode of expression. All includes the self as well. Thus from whatever point of view, we consider, we arrive at the conclusion that an omniscient soul knows the self and all other substances simultaneously.

          Soul is a sudstance. and knowledge and conation are its two innate attributes. Substance is nothing else but another name given to the sum total of its attributes and modifications. A substance cannot function independently; whatever is done by it, is done solely by virtue of its attributes and modifications.

          When one says that soul conates and knows the self and all other substances, it has to be admitted that perfect conation and perfect knowledge also conate and know the self and all other substances at the same time.

          Every luminous substance illuminates both itself and all other objects within its range. Conation and knowledge illuminate both themselves and all other objects.

          If knowledge be assumed as not knowing the soul, then it will never be possible for any one to know the soul and it will be sheer nonsense to talk of soul, self-knowledge, self-realisation and self-concentration. In other words, path to liberation and liberation itself will become quite meaningless.

          In Gatha 171, it has been laid down that neither knowledge can exist without soul nor can there be a soul without knowledge. It is so; because knowledge being the attribute of the soul, it can never exist independently. If it is said that knowledge does not know the self, then it means that it is quite separate from soul, which it is not. Therefore knowledge knows both the soul as well as all other objects.

          It is a well known principle of Jainism that delusion, attachment and aversion, etc., are the main causes of karmic bondage with the soul. The Omniscient Lord having already destroyed the deluding karma Mohaniya), it is entirely impossible that any impure thought-activity such as desire, etc., should arise in Him. Owing to the destruction of the knowledge-and-conation-obscuring karma, and attainment of perfect knowledge and conation, every knowable object is automatically revealed to Him, and nothing remains which he may desire to know, The action of a vibratory omniscient, ( Sayoga Kevali ), in moving about, and preaching Truth, etc, are not volitional; they are due to the operation of the remaining four non-destructive karmas. They are in a way like the reflex actions of the nervous system.

          When the Lord Arhat, on the termination of His age karma destroys all the remaining karmas, he is absolutely liberated from all the material bodies, fine or gross. He is pace, perfect independent, free from rebirth, all blissful, has accomplished all that was-to-be accomplished, and as such ascends directly upwards by force of nature and there abides at the summit of the, Universe. He is-then called a Siddha ( a perfect liberated soul ). This condition of a Siddha is known as Nirvana. The word Nirvana according to the Jaina doctrine means extinguishment of all foreign thought-activities, desire, attachment, aversion, etc., and the attainment of the soul�s own pure individuality together with all its pure and natural attributes and modifications.