Jain World
Sub Categories of Jain Books
Books on Line

Kundakunda Pushpanjali




I.  Niyamasara ( Soul-Jiva )


II.  Non-Soul (Ajva)

  III.  Pure Thought-Activity, Shuddha Bhava

IV.  Practical Right Conduct, (Vyavahaar Charitra)

  V.  Repentance, (Pratikramana)
  VI.  Renunciation, (pratyakhyana)
  VII.  Confession, (Alochana)
  VIII.  Expiation, (Prayaschitta)
  IX.  Supreme Equanimity, (Parama Samadhi)
  X.  Supreme Devotion, (Parama Bhakti)
  XI.  Real Independence, (Nishchaya Avashaya)
  XII.  Pure Consciousness, (Shuddha Upayoga)

XIII.  Table

  Jain Books
  Catalog of Books in English
  Catalog of Books in Hindi
  Catalog of Books in Gujarati
  List of Books, Topics & Sub-topics and Authors




          This practical right conduct can be observed either partially or fully. Laymen observe it partially, while those who observe it fully are saints. Partial observance is merely a stepping stone to the conduct of a saint, without following which it is not possible to advance spiritually and to ultimately liberate the soul from karmic bondage.

          A layman is required to follow the seven supplementary vows also, as they are helpful in the proper observance of the first five.

          Out of these seven, the following three are called Gunavratas ( multiplicative vows ) because they raise the value of the five vows multifold.

          Dig-Vrata, a vow to limit worldly activities to fixed points in all the 10 directions North, South, East, West, North-east, North-west, South-east South-west, above and below.

          Desha-Vrata, a vow to limit wordly activity for a fixed period � only. �

Anartha-Danda Vrata. Taking a vow not to commit purposeless sin. It is of five kinds:�

          (a) Apa-Dhyana, thinking ill of others.

          (b) Papopadesha, Preaching evil of others.

          (c) Pramada-charya. Inconsiderate conduct, such as uselessly breaking the boughs of trees.

          (d) Himsa-dan, preparing pr supplying instruments of attack.

          (e) Dushruti, Reading  or  listening  to improper literature.


          The remaining four are the following Shiksha Vratas or disciplinary vows; so called because they are preparatory to the discipline of an ascetic�s life:--

          Samayikar-Taking a vow to devote a fixed1 period every day, once, twice, or three times, at sunrise, sunset and noon to the contemplation of the self for spiritual advancement.

          Proshadhopvasa Taking a vow to fast on four days of the month, l. e., the two Ashtamis and the two Chaturdashis.

          Bhogopobhoga. Parimana. Taking a vow every day to limit one�s enjoyment of consumable and non-consumeable things.

          Atithi-Samvibhaga. Taking a vow to take one�s food only after feeding ascetics or others, with a part of it.

          The following eleven stages of spiritual progress have been laid down for a layman.

          1 Darshana pratima. A layman who entertains right belief, and follows the five main vows to a limited extent is classed in this stage.

          2 Vrata-Pratima. In this stage he observes the five main vows to a limited extent (anuvratas), without transgression and follows the seven supplementary vows

          3. Samayika Pratima. In this stage he practices faultless contemplation regularly, three times, in the morning, at midday and in the evening, at least for about 48 minutes every time

          4 Proshadhopavasa Pratima. In this stage he observes a fast faultlessly, on the 8th and 14th days of the fortnight.

          5.  Sachitta  Tyaga Pratima,  In this stage he does not take animate water and vegetable, etc.


          6. Ratri-Bhukat Tyaga Pratima. He does not take or give food or drink at night

          7. Brahmacharya Pratima:� He gives up sexual intercourse even with his wife.

          8. Arambha Tyaga Pratima He gives up all profession and all means of earning money and all wordly occupations.

          9. Parigraha-Tyaga pratima. He gives up all desire for objects of the word and abandons all property except a very few limited number of clothes and utensils

          10. Anumati-Tyaga Pratima. He would not even offer advice on any worldly matter

          11. Uddishta-Tyaga Pratima. In this stage he would not accept food which is prepared particularly for him. He will only accept food which is respect-full offered by a house-holder at the time when he goes out for food. One following the discipline of this stage may be-

          (a) Kshullaka, who keeps a small sheet of cloth not sufficiently long  to cover his whole body and a small loin-cloth (langoti), and dines in a dish, or

          (b) Ailaka, who wears only a small loin-cloth (langoti) and dines off his hands.

          They both carry a bowl of water for cleaning the body and peacock-feathers brush for harmlessly removing insects.

          Every Jaina houses-holder is ordinarily required to perform the following six daily duties.

          1.  Deva-Puja.  Worship  of the  Arhats,  the adorables.

          2.  Guru Bhakti  Devotion to the gurus or pre ceptor-saints.

          3 Svadhyaya Study of the scriptures

          4. Samyama. Control of the five senses and the mind. In practicing Samyama, it is necessary to renounce certain objects of enjoyments with the idea of self-control.

          5. Tapa. Austerities such as meditating upon the nature of soul, every morning and evening, for a fixed time.

          6. Dana or Charity Giving of (a) food, (b) knowledge, (c) medicine, or (d) protection.

          As soon as an Ailaka is able to subdue his passion, and regards himself as above passion and emotion, like an infant he discards that small langoti also, becomes a nirgrantha, a naked saint, without any possession, whatsoever, except the bowl for carrying water, for cleaning, but not bathing the body and the peacock fathers brush for carefully removing insects He may keep scriptures as well for daily study.

          A saint while observing the five great vows fully and without any transmigration, has to observe the following eight rules of Conduct also:�


          1. Five kinds of caution, (Samiti).

          (a) Irya Samiti proper care in walking.

          (b) Bhasha Samiti, proper care in speaking.

          (c) Eshna Samiti, proper care in eating.

          (d) Adana-Nikshepa  Samiti,  Proper care in lifting and placing the bowl, ect.

          (e) Utsarga Samiti, proper care while attending calls of nature.


          II.  Three kinds of Restraint (Gupti), (a) of mind, (b) of word, (c) of body.

          These eight rules of conduct taken together with the five vows make the thirteen rules of practical right conduct laid down for a saint.

          In dealing with the six essential duties from the real point of view, the author has used the word Avashyaka in its etymological sense. Avasha, means independent; and Avashyaka Karma means independent action. Independent action signifies the idea that a soul of a saint in mediation, is not dependent upon any other thought activity except its own pure and real nature. This is only possible in the condition of self-absorption, when a saint is free from all fareign thought activities.

          From the practical point of view, they may be briefly described as follows:-

          1. Pratikramana; Repentence means the statement of the sins and transgressions committed by a saint, during the performance of his daily routing; and making penance for them.

          2. Pratyakayana. Renunciation means resolving to avoid particular thought-activities and action in future, which tend to disturb the performance of essential duties.

          3.  Stuti or Praising and

          4. Vandana prostration the worshipful saints. They are both aspects of Devotion which are practiced with the object of getting rid of impure thought activities.

          5. Samavika  or  Equanimity.  In practicing Samayika a saint resorts to some .undisturbed and calmly and cheerfully withdraws all is activities, and meditates upon his own soul and various attributes and modifications.

          6. Kayotsarga. Is the relinquishment of attachment to the body and all other objects associated with it.

          Nirvana is the result brought about by the practice of self-absorption, which is the combination of Real Right belief, Real Right Knowledge and Real

Right Conduct.

          In the condition of Nirvana the soul retains its own pure and real thought-activities only, and its own natural and eternal bliss.