Perception is that act or process of the mind which makes known an
external object; or the faculty by which one has knowledge through the,
medium or instrumentality of bodily organs.
Conception is defined in Beeton�s Dictionary, as the simple apprehension
or perception that we have of any object without proceeding to affirm or
deny anything regarding it. In this sense the word conception� would
express very nearly the idea conveyed by the word Darshana as used in Jain
Philosophy. In general language however the word conception� as defined
in Webster�s Dictionary signifies that mental act or combination of acts
by . which an idea or notion is formed of an absent object of perception,
or of a sensation formerly felt. When we see an object with eyes open, we
have a perception of it, when the same object is presented to the mind,
with the eyes shut, in idea only, or in memory, we have a conception of
Cognition is defined as knowledge or certain knowledge as from personal
view or experience.
Of the words cognition, conation, perception, and conception, conception
would best convey the sense of the word Darshana, but it would be liable
to mis-interpretation. Hence conation is the best word we an choose to
express the idea. Darshana is that undifferentiated, detail-less
indefinite, lazy first stage of knowledge, which always precedes Jnana
which is detailed, definite certain knowledge of an object.
Swabhava-Jnana may be translated as natural knowledge, and Vibhava Jnana
as non-natural knowledge,
The two are further defined in the next Gatha.
����ֻ�ش�פ��ָ������� �����ֵ�� ��� ����־֝�֝�� ע� l
�֝���ם֤���ֵ֯��� ���־֝�֝�� ����� ������� ll 11 ll
�֝��֝�� �� ������ ��פ����������� ������� �֝֯֕��� l
����֝�� ן�ֵ֯֯�� ��פ���և� �������� ���� ll 12 ll ��㴴�� ll
11-12. Natural knowledge ( is ) perfect, un-assisted �by sense and
independent. Non-natural knowledge is of two kinds.
Right knowledge of four kinds:-
Sensitive knowledge ( Mati Jnana)
Scripture knowledge ( Shruta Jnana )
Visual knowledge ( Avadhi Jnana ) and
Mental Knowledge ( Mana-paryaya Jnana ), and
Wrong knowledge of three kinds, beginning with sensitive knowledge.
���� ����֝ֈ�ֆ����� ������־�����ֵ֯�֤��� �������� l
����ֻ�ش�פ��ָ������� �����ֵ�� ��� ����־�״�פ� ��ם֤�� 13
13. And conation attentiveness ( is ) of two kinds (i. e.,) natural
(Swabhava Darshana), and the opposite of its kind, non-natural (Vibhava
Darshana). That, which is perfect, unassisted by senses and independent,
is called Natural.
Knowledge is the Innate attribute of Soul, It is pure and perfect. But, on
account of the operation on mundane soul of knowledge- Obscuring Karma, in
varying degrees, it is evolved to a greater or less extent. When
knowledge-obscuring Karma is altogether destroyed, the pure and perfect
knowledge shines forth. This knowledge is the natural knowledge called
As long as a soul is in its mundane- condition and is not altogether free
from Karma, its knowledge is impure so it is called Vibhava knowledge.
Vibhava Jnana is of two- kind:- Right knowledge and wrong knowledge
Knowledge combined with Right belief is called Right knowledge.
Knowledge-combined with Wrong belief is termed Wrong knowledge.
Again Right knowledge has been subdivided into four kinds:-
(a) Sensitive knowledge:-Knowledge of the self and non-self by means of
the senses and the mind.
(b) Scriptural-knowledge: Knowledge derived from the reading or hearing of
Scriptures or through an object known by Sensitive knowledge.
(c) Visual knowledge;- Direct knowledge of matter, in varying degrees,
having reference to the subject matter (Dravya, space (Kshetra), time
(Kala), and-quality Bhava).
(d) Mental knowledge:- Direct knowledge of another�s mental activity about
Knowledge, thus, is divided into eight kinds:-
1. Perfect or Natural knowledge.
2. Right Sensitive knowledge.
3. Wrong Sensitive knowledge
4. Right Scriptural knowledge.
6. Right Visual-* knowledge.
7. Wrong Visual ; knowledge.
8. Mental knowledge:
���� ����� ������ ן���� ��ם֤�� ֳ�־�פ�ۓ��ע�
�֕��ֆ�� ���ֵ֯���� �ָ֯�־�ꌏ��� �� םָ���ꌏ��� ll 14 ll
14 Non-natural conation is said to be of three Kinds: Ocular (Chakshu
Non ocular (Achakshu Darshana) and visual (Avadhi Darshana).
Modification (is) of two kinds, irrelative (natural, Swabhava Paryaya).
In Ocular conation (Chakshu Darshana,) the object is visible undefinedly:
In Non-ocular conation ( Achakshu Darshana ) the object is undefinedly
tangible to the other four senses and to the ( quasi-sense ) mind.
In Visual conation (Avadhi Darshana) there is direct tangibility of
material substances just preceding their knowledge without the assistance
of the senses and mind.
�֕��ֵ�� ��� ֳ�־�״�פ� ��ם֤�� l
�֕��ֵ�� ��� ����־�״�פ� ��ם֤�� ll 15 ll
15. Human, Hellish, Subhuman and, Celestial are said to
be Non-natural conditions. free from miseries arising from the effect of
Karmas are termed Natural.