Jain World
Sub Categories of Jain Books
Books on Line

Kundakunda Pushpanjali




I.  Niyamasara ( Soul-Jiva )


II.  Non-Soul (Ajva)

  III.  Pure Thought-Activity, Shuddha Bhava

IV.  Practical Right Conduct, (Vyavahaar Charitra)

  V.  Repentance, (Pratikramana)
  VI.  Renunciation, (pratyakhyana)
  VII.  Confession, (Alochana)
  VIII.  Expiation, (Prayaschitta)
  IX.  Supreme Equanimity, (Parama Samadhi)
  X.  Supreme Devotion, (Parama Bhakti)
  XI.  Real Independence, (Nishchaya Avashaya)
  XII.  Pure Consciousness, (Shuddha Upayoga)

XIII.  Table

  Jain Books
  Catalog of Books in English
  Catalog of Books in Hindi
  Catalog of Books in Gujarati
  List of Books, Topics & Sub-topics and Authors

Chapter  I - NIYAMASARA ( Soul-Jiva )



            ��֝������ ���׾ֵ֯��� ����ִ���߳���ֳ��״���ӕ�֤�� l

            �֢�׾���� �������� ��֤����� ����׾ֳ�ꋝ� ll 16 ll


            �ֈ��������� ��ם֤�� ���׸����� �����֝�� �ֈ������ l

            ������� ׾֟��ָ�� �����׾ֳ�֐����� ��֤���ִ�� ll 17 ll ��㴴��


          16-17. Human souls are of two .kinds; born in Work-region or in Enjoyment-region. Hellish souls should be known to be of seven kinds,- because of the regions.

          Sub-human souls are said to be of fourteen kinds. Celestial souls (are) of four kinds. Their detailed account should be known from (the scripture) Loka-Vibhaga.



          In the latter half �of the 14th and the three gathas following it, have been described the modifications of the substance, soul. Of these: modifications, the natural one is the modification. in the pure and liberated condition of the soul. Non-natural modifications are impure conditions which arise through the activity of the Karmic matter.

          With reference to the conditions of existence, the Non-natural modifications are divided into four kinds:-

          Human, Hellish, Sub-human and Cele ial.

          Human souls are of two kinds:-

           (a)  Born in Work-Region These souls have and to earn their livelihood by follow-different; operations, such as military. agricultural, and commercial.

          b) Born in Enjoyment-Region. These souls live in a condition of life where there is all enjoyment with but any work, business or effort, Cundakunda�s Niyamasara


          Hellish Souls., These souls -have-to ,stay in one or other of the1 seven nether regions, according to the effect of their evil karmas. They always have a very bad thought-paint, sense �perception and transformation there is no enjoyment or pleasure at all ( Vide-Tatwarthadbigama Sutra, the Sacred Books of the Jainas, Volume II Chapter III Sutras l to 6 ).

           Sub-human Souls. Excepting the Human, he Hellish and the Celestial souls, all others from the one- sensed to the five-sensed living beings, are called sub-human souls or Tiryancha.

          They are called Tiryaneha, from the word fryak, crooked, because they: adopt crooked through-activities. They are in a very low position as regards their body, enjoyment, etc., have little knowledge, and have multifarious grave demerits. The fourte in kinds of Sub-human, Souls referred to in Gatha 7 are as follows:-

(1) Fine  One-sensed       ..

(2) Gross One-sensed     ..

(3)     � Two-sensed        ..

(4)  �  Three-sensed         ..

(5) � Four-sensed  ..

(6) Irrational five-sensed

(7) Rational five-sensed

Each of ese-seven may, be

(1)   Develolopabl -(able or

(2)    �Non ceve-


and  they are thus divide into

into 14 groups.




( Vide� �Gommatasara Jiva Jani, Chapter II Gatha 72 ).


          Celestial Souls or Devas. They are called Deva, from the root Div to shine, because they always amuse themselves with their heavenly acquisitions and have a shining heavenly constitution, which is technically called Vaikriyika Sharira or Fluid body.

          These celestial bodies can assume any form they like Their body has no flesh, blood, or bone, there are no filthy excretions from it, and it is lustrous.

          These beings form four groups :-

          (a)  Residential ( Bhawana Vast ),

          (b)  Peripatetic ( Vyantara ).

          (c)  Stellar ( Jyotishka ).

          (d)  Heavealy ( Vairiianika )

          (Vide Tatwartha dhigama Sutra by Mr. J.L. Jaini Chapter IV ).


            ����� ������ �֤�� ���ꐐֻ֍������� ����פ� �־���ָ��� l

            ����ֳ֕�־���֤�� ����� ������ ��� ם֓���֤��� ll 18 ll


          18, From the practical point r of view, a mundane soul causes ( the bondage 6f ) material Karmas ^ad experiences ( their results ); but from the (injure) real point of view the soul creates ( and ) experiences thought-activities arising through the ( effect of } Karmas.



          When we think of soul as a substance quite free and distinct the material Karmas, we find that the  pure  real  point  of view, it causes and experiences its own pure ,  thought-activities, peace, etc. When  we think  of a mundane soul which is in bondage with Karmas, we find that from the impure real point of view, it causes and experiences its own impure thought-activities, anger, pride, greed, pain, pleasure, etc.  These impure thought-activities arise in soul, through the operation of deluding Karmas; they are not the soul�s own pure and  teal  thought-activities. Whenever any impure thought- activity appears in a mundane soul, the Karmic matter is itself attracted towards the soul and  bound with it.  Thus the soul does not really cause the bondage of the Karmas and is from the practical point of view,  said  to  be  the causer of Karmas.  When any material Karma which was bound some time before comes into operation and disturbs the thought-activity of the soul, it is then that the soul experiences rain or pleasure.  Thus the soul, in reality, experiences its own impure thought-activity; but from the practical point of view only  it is said to experience the results of material Karmas.


            �����۟�֋�� ��߾�� �������׸���� ��㾾ֳ�ם֤��֕��ֵ�� l

            �֕�ֵֵ֝��� ��߾�� ��ӕ���� ����ן� ���׾������� ll 19 ll


          19. From the substance point of view ( all ) souls are free from the modifications mentioned before; but from the modification-point-of-view souls are possessed of both .( the Natural and Non-natural modifications ).