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Kundakunda Pushpanjali




I.  Niyamasara ( Soul-Jiva )


II.  Non-Soul (Ajva)

  III.  Pure Thought-Activity, Shuddha Bhava

IV.  Practical Right Conduct, (Vyavahaar Charitra)

  V.  Repentance, (Pratikramana)
  VI.  Renunciation, (pratyakhyana)
  VII.  Confession, (Alochana)
  VIII.  Expiation, (Prayaschitta)
  IX.  Supreme Equanimity, (Parama Samadhi)
  X.  Supreme Devotion, (Parama Bhakti)
  XI.  Real Independence, (Nishchaya Avashaya)
  XII.  Pure Consciousness, (Shuddha Upayoga)

XIII.  Table

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Chapter  II - Non-Soul (Ajva)



Non-Soul ( AJIVA )


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          20. The substance matter is of two kinds; in the form of an atom ( Paramanu ) and in the form of molecules ( Skandha }. And the molecules are of six kinds and atom ( is ) of two kinds.


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          21-24. Gross- gross, gross, gross-fine, fine-gross, fine, and fine-fine are the six kinds, earth, etc.

          Solids like earth, stone, consist of gross-gross molecules ( Liquids ) like ghee, water, oil are gross. Shade, sunshine, etc , consist of gross-fine molecules.

Objects of the four senses ( of touch, taste smell and hearing ) are of fine-gross molecules. Karmic molecules, in the condition of being bound up with soul are fine. Those which are unlike these are of fine-fine molecules.


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          25. That which is the cause of the four root matters ( earth, water, fire and air ) should be known as cause-atom. ( Karana Paramanu ). The smallest possible part of a molecule should be known as effect atom ( Karya Paramanu ).


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          26. That substance which ( is ) the beginning, the middle and the end by itself, inapprehensible by the senses, and ( is ) indivisible, should be known as an atom.



          In Gathas Nos. 20-26 is described the substance � Matter,� It is called Pudgala, because it unites � Pooryati � and forms into molecules and � galati � dissolves into atoms; also because it changes in its attributes of colour, smell, taste and touch.

          An atom is the smallest possible part of matter. It cannot be divided further.

          Those atoms which cause the formation of four root matters: earth, water, fire and air, are called cause-atom. When any molecule is dissolved into the smallest possible atoms, the atoms so obtained are called effect-atoms. By the combination of atoms in different proportions, various kinds of molecules are formed (vide Gommatasara Jiva Kanda Gathas 594.)

          In gathas 21-24 are mentioned the six prominent divisions of material molecules :-

          Gross-gross are solid objects, which when separated or broken asunder, cannot unite themselves without the help of some third object, such as paper, wood, cloth.

          Gross are liquid objects which when once separated have the capacity of again combining together, without the intervention of any other object, such as water, milk.

          Gross-fine are those objects which are visible to the eye but cannot be grasped by the hand such as shade, light, sunshine. ,

          Fine-gross are those objects which are not visible to the eye, but are apprehensible by the other four senses, such as air, sound, smell, taste.

          Fine are those molecules which are not cognizable and perceivable by any of the five senses, such as karmic molecules.

          Fine-fine are those molecules which are composed of at least two ultimate atoms ( Paramanu ) and do not fall into the category of the first five kinds.


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          27.  That which possesses one taste, color, and smell, and two touches is of natural attributes. � Those tangible to all ( senses ) are in Jain Philosophy said to be of non-natural attributes.


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          28. The modification which is independent of other objects is the natural modification (Svabhava-Paryaya); and- modification in the molecular form is the non-natural modification, (Vibhava Paryaya).


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          29. From the real point of view an atom is said � Matter substance�; but from the other ( i.e., p:acticals point of view) the term �Matter substance� has been applied to a molecule.



          In reality an indivisible and the smallest possible particle of matter, i.e. an atom is the real � matter substance. � Its attributes are the natural attributes of matter. Such an atom must have five attributes :-

          (1) any one of the five colours;

          (2) any �one of the two smells;

          ( 3 ) any one of the five tastes;

          (4) any one of the two touches, i.e., roughness and smoothness;

          (5) any oue of the two touches, i.e., coldness �and heat.


          As the modification of an atom is independent of all other objects it is called natural modification.

          When two or more atoms combine together a molecule is formed. A molecule is said to be substance � Matter � format be practice point of view. Attributes and modifications of molecules so formed are known as non-natural attributes find modifications. Atoms are never apprehensible by the scnse, while molecules may be tangible tp the senses.


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          30. The auxiliary causes of motion and rest to soul and matter (are called) the medium of motion, and medium of rest (respectively). - (That which is1 the auxiliary cause of ) giving space to all the substances, soul, etc , (is) space.