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Kundakunda Pushpanjali




I.  Niyamasara ( Soul-Jiva )


II.  Non-Soul (Ajva)

  III.  Pure Thought-Activity, Shuddha Bhava

IV.  Practical Right Conduct, (Vyavahaar Charitra)

  V.  Repentance, (Pratikramana)
  VI.  Renunciation, (pratyakhyana)
  VII.  Confession, (Alochana)
  VIII.  Expiation, (Prayaschitta)
  IX.  Supreme Equanimity, (Parama Samadhi)
  X.  Supreme Devotion, (Parama Bhakti)
  XI.  Real Independence, (Nishchaya Avashaya)
  XII.  Pure Consciousness, (Shuddha Upayoga)

XIII.  Table

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Chapter  II - Non-Soul (Ajva)



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          31. Practical time is either of two kinds, instant and wink (avali) ; or of three kinds (past, present and future). Past (time is) equal to the number (of the liberated souls) who have destroyed their bodily forms, multiplied by numerable winks.


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          32. The instants of the practical time are infinite times (of the number of) atoms, which again are infinite times (of the number of) souls. (Time-points) which are packed full in the universe, are (called) the real �Time.�


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          33. That by the help of which, all substances, soul, etc., are altered in their own modifications, is �Time.� The four substances; the medium of motion, (the medium of rest, space and time)- have ( only) their own natural attributes and modifications.


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          34. Excepting Time, (the other five) of these six substances,- ( are known ) as �Extensive substances,� (Astikaya) Extensive substances occupy many spatial, units, as mentioned in Jaina scriptures


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          35-36, ,The atoms of matter are numerable, innumerable and infinite. Verily there are innumerable points of space in . � medium of motion,� medium of rest� and in each individual soul.

          The same (innumerable number of spatial units are) in the universe; and in the other, (non-universe) (there are) infinite (number of spatial units). There is no extensiveness in Time; therefore it has one spatial unit (only).


          In Gatha No. 9 six principles were mentioned. Out of those the two, i.e., Soul and Matter, were dealt with in gathas 10 to 29. In Gathas 30-86 the remaining four principles have been explained. They are auxiliary causes to the main functions of Soul and Matter.

          Medium of motion,  is  an essentially auxiliary cause of-the motion of Soul and Matter.

          Medium of Rest is an essentially auxiliary cause of the static condition of Soul and Matter.

          Space is that which-gives room to all substances, including Soul and Matter.

          Time is the auxiliary cause of bringing about modifications, in all substances, including Soul and Matter.

          Out of these six principles, space is the biggest, having infinite-dimensions all round.  Within space there is the universe- which contains all the other five� substances, which cannot exist beyond space.

          Of the  medium of motion and rest, single, immaterial substance pervading t whole of the universe. -

          The units of time (each of which is an immaterial and individual substance) are very closely packed up in the universe. They are innumerable in number.

          Soul and Matter, being infinite, are found everywhere in the universe, in their various gross or fine forms. In connection with this subject, it is necessary to define and explain what a spatial unit (Pradesha) is.

          Spatial unit is (hat part of space which is occupied by the smallest indivisible particle of matter.  It is a unit, generally employed in measuring the dimensions of substances in the universe.  If we  measure the universe taking a spatial unit as our measure, then we find �that there are innumerable spatial units in it. The medium of Motion and the medium of Rest are co-extensive with the universe and have thus a similar number of spatial units.  Souls are found in different bodies of different dimensions in their mundane state, but still each one of them has the capacity of extending throughout the whole universe  Thus the spatial units of each soul arc equal in number to those of the universe, innumerable  Matter  exists in the universe either in the form of atoms or in the form of molecules.  Molecules  are composed of either numerable  or innumerable : or infinite  number  of atoms. The-spatial units of matter are thus numerable, innumerable or infinite.

          Space substance is infinite in dimension and has thus, an infinite number of spatial units.

          All the five substances, except time, occupy more than one spatial unit. -They are therefore called the five extensive substances, Pancha-Astikayas.

          The points of time are also innumerable. Each one of these points has its own separate and independent existence. Though each one of them i s connected with another, it is never combined with it.  There are innumerable spatial units in the universe, so. the number of points of time as well is innumerable., As each point of time occupies only one spatial unit, and not more than one in any case, it is called  not-extensive substance, Akaya-Dravya.

          In the universe there are only innumerable spatial units, how then, it may be asked, can it give space to an infinite number of atoms and molecules.  The explanation is simple.  The material atoms posses the capacity  of compressing an infinite number; of themselves into one molecule, which may not occupy more than one spatial unit.. Take the case of light. The space in a room may be occupied by the light of one lamp and also by the light of as many lamps: as may be placed there.

          In Gatha 31 Past time is equal to numerable winks multiplied by total number of liberated souls.

          As a matter of fact 608 mundane souls  are liberated  within every period of 6  months and 8 instants. This process has been going on continuously and uniformly since eternity.  If we reduce 6 months and 8 instants into winks and divide by 608, we obtain the average time for one soul to obtain liberation, i e-, numerable  winks.  The number of, winks thus obtained is constant and does not vary. The number of past liberated souls is infinite and as shown: above it increases by 608 within  the  period  of  every 6 months and 8  instants.  Thus we arrive at the conclusion that the length of past time is infinite and it increases by the constant number of winks ( vide Gommatasara by Mr. J- L. Jaini, Jiva Kanda Gatha 578.)


8 Avalis or Winks =          1 Kashta
16 Kashtas =          1 Kala
32 Kalas =          1 Ghatika
60 Ghatikas =          One day and night or 24 hours
1 Ghatika =          24 mintes



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          37. The Matter substance (is) material; all the rest are immaterial. Soul (has) consciousness as its nature, all the rest are devoid of the attribute of consciousness.