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Kundakunda Pushpanjali




I.  Niyamasara ( Soul-Jiva )


II.  Non-Soul (Ajva)

  III.  Pure Thought-Activity, Shuddha Bhava

IV.  Practical Right Conduct, (Vyavahaar Charitra)

  V.  Repentance, (Pratikramana)
  VI.  Renunciation, (pratyakhyana)
  VII.  Confession, (Alochana)
  VIII.  Expiation, (Prayaschitta)
  IX.  Supreme Equanimity, (Parama Samadhi)
  X.  Supreme Devotion, (Parama Bhakti)
  XI.  Real Independence, (Nishchaya Avashaya)
  XII.  Pure Consciousness, (Shuddha Upayoga)

XIII.  Table

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Chapter III  - Pure Thought-Activity, Shuddha Bhava



          2- physique (Kula) means natural constitution. Its characteristics , vary according to the, kind �f the material molecules of which the external bodies are made. The total number of �the kinds of physique, is 1975,000,000,000,00.

           Soul-classes ( Jiva ; Samasa ).

          Those common characteristics,, by which mundane souls, though of marry distinctions and kinds,, may be distinguished by being collected into groups, are called soul-classes.

          Their main divisions are -14 which are given in commentary Gatha 15-17

          Soul-quests  ( Margana ) are conditions, forms �and qualities,  etc., by �means of �Which  or amongst which souls are searched for.  : They are fourteen in number as follows:-

          l-:            Condition of existence ( Gati ).

          2.           Senses ( Indriya ) 

3.                 Embodiment ( Kaya ).

4.                 Vibratorya activities (Yoga )

5.                 Sex inclinations ( Vada ).

6.                 Passions (Kashaya)

7.                 Knowledge ( Jnana;).

8.                 Control (Samyama).

9.                 Conation (Darshana).

          10      Thought-paint (Leshya)

          12.           Right belief (Samyaktva)

          13.           Rationality ( Sanjnitva ).

          14.           Assimilation ( Ahara ).

For detailed knowledge of all: these technical terms consult Gommatasara Jiva Kanda and Karma Kanda  translated by Mr. J.L. Jaini, S,B.J. Vols. V and VI.


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          50. All the aforesaid conditions relate either to foreign substances or foreign (modifications; hence ( they ) should be, renounce. Internal principle, is one�s own substance, soul. ( It only ) should


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          51; Conviction (in things ascertained as� they ) alone without  ( any:) perverse motive ( is ) right belief,  ( Samyak Barshana.  ( Knowledge) front doubt, ( Samshaya), perversity ( Vimoha ) and  Vaccilation  ( Vibhrama ) is  right  knowledge (Samyak Jnana).


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          52.: Conviction, from wavering ( Chala ), impurity ( Mala )t and non-steadfastness ( Agarha ) alone ( is ) right belief. Correct understanding ( Adhigama ) of what principle are worth renouncing and what are worth realising, ( is ) light knowledge.


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          53. The external causes of right belief are the Jain scriptures and the persons who know them; while the destruction, etc, of right-belief-deluding Karma are said to be the internal causes.


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          54. Listen, ( just as ) Right Belief and Right knowledge are the ( causes of ) liberation, ( so ) is Right Conduct. There-fore I shall describe Right Conduct from ( both ) the real and the practical points of view.


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          55. Right conduct from the practical point of view, is to practice austerities from the practical stand-point, while Right Conduct from the real point of view is to observe austerities from the real stand-point.



          Right-belief,  Right  Knowledge  together  with Right  Conduct  were described as  the path liberation in Gatha 3.

          Belief in order to be called Right Belief must be free from perversity  and falsity of motive. Real motive -6f �very �mundane soul bent upon spiritual advancement  is the realization of the self and the attainment of true and perfect peace,-� freedom and happiness.  AH other motives  which do not lead towards this goal, but rather mislead the soul towards worldly pleasures, which are in� reality -the causes of misery, are false and perverse.  It is also necessary that  right- belief should be free from the defects of wavering, impurity and non-steadfastness. la wavering condition of right belief, its substance remains quite sound, but only the form is slightly disturbed as the surface of an ocean is disturbed by waves, to illustrate which is generally quoted the example of a person, who worships Shanti Natha in preference to the other Tirthankaras for acquiring peace, plenty and comfort.

          Impurity here implies the following five defects :-a) Doubt (Shanka), b) Desire of sense pleasures (Kamksha), c)- Disgust (Vichikitsa), 4) admiration of wrong believers (Anyadrishti samstava.)

          Non-steadfastness. This condition arises when right belief is not quite fixed in true nature of things. For example worshipping in one�s own temple in preference to the temple built by others. A person who has a steadfast right belief knows that it does not make the slightest difference, whether you worship in your temple or in one .built by your neighbour.

          The external cause of right belief is to study the Jaina Scriptures and to attend upon those who know them fully well, with the object of understanding the principles from them. The internal cause of right belief is the subsidence, or destructive-subsidence, or destruction of the right belief-deluding karma and of the four error-feeding (anantanubandhi) passions. (For details see Gatha 26 Gommatasara Jiva Kanda by Mr. J. L. Jaini S, B. J, Vol V.)

          Right knowledge should always be free from doubt, perversity and indifference. A soul possessing right knowledge has clear and correct knowledge of the essential principles and has the capacity of discrimination between what is worth renouncing and what is worth realising.

          Along with these two, i.e., right belief and right knowledge, right conduct is an essential factor for the attainment of liberation; because neither any one the three, nor any two of the three can constitute the path of liberation. Right conduct has been described here as being of two kinds. When austerities, etc., are practised from the practical point of view, with the aim of attaining real right conduct, i.e., self-absorption, they are said to be practical right conduct. Being absorbed h> one�s own true nature is the real austerity and the same is the real right conduct.