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70. ( From the real point of view ) refraining from bodily movements,
non-attachment to the body, restraint of body or renunciation of causing
injury, etc., is called control of body.
From the real point of view, self-realisation is the path to liberation;
but in order to reach the stage of self-realisation it is necessary that
certain rules of conduct should be followed and practised. These rules are
divided into ( 1 ) Laymen�s rules of conduct, and ( 2 ) saints� rules of
conduct. The rules of conduct to be observed by a layman, only serve as a
means to the partial control of his passions. If he wants to make further
progress and attain perfection, he must adopt the rules of conduct laid
down for saints These rules practically consist in the renunciation of all
worldly possessions and occupations.
practical right conduct to be observed by saints is of 13 kinds :-
1. Vow of
3. Vow of
4. Vow of
5. Vow of
The saints have to observe these rules fully, without any blemish or
transgression, so that their thought-activities may remain pure and
undisturbed, and they may be able to apply themselves to self-realisation.
6. Carefulness in walking.
in lifting up and laying down.
kinds of control :-
11. Control of mind.
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71. Worshipful Lords ( Arhats ) are those who are entirely free from all
the ( four ) destructive Karmas, arid are possessed of the highest
attributes, Omniscience, etc., and crowned with the thirty-four
extraordinary glories, ( Atishaya ).
When a soul, following the rules of conduct laid down for the saints, as
given in previous Gathas, realises the self and advances, on, till it
reaches the with spiritual stage of vibratory omniscient ( Sayoga Kevali
), it is then that the soul is called Arhat or the Worshipful Lord. In
this stage the .soul is still in the physical body and. reveals the Truth
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72. those (souls ), who have destroyed the bondage of the eight Karmas,
are possessed of the eight great attributes, abide at the topmost of the
universe and are the most exalted and indestructible, are Perfect Souls (
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73. Those ( saints ), who are possessed of five kinds of conduct, who have
trampled down the fury of the elephant of five senses, who are firm in
their determination, and who are profound in virtue are ( called ) Heads
of the order of Saints, ( Acharya ).
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74. Those ( saints ), who are brave, possessed of the three jewels, are
preachers of the categories enunciated by the Conqueror ( Jina ), and are
endowed with the thought-activity of desirelessness, are ( known ) as the
Preceptors ( Upadhyaya ).
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75, Those who are free from all ( worldly ) occupations, are always deeply
absorbed in four kinds of contemplation ( Aradhana ) , and are
possessionless and delusionless, are ( said ) to be the Saints, ( Sadhus
According to Jaina Philosophy there are 14 spiritual stages of
thought-activities, which a soul, desirous of being liberated and of
attaining perfection has to pass through. .The first stage is of wrong
belief; the second and third are the intervening progressive stages of
thought-activities between wrong belief, and right belief of the 4th
A soul which enters the 4th stage is said to have reached the thresh-hold
of liberation. At this stage, the soul has got only right belief. As soon
as that soul begins to follow the practical vows of a layman, it is said
to enter the 5th stage. Again when this very soul, rising higher up,
renounces the world and observes the vows fully and wholly, it is said to
have entered the 6th and 7th stages, where it is known as a saint. While a
saint remains in these two stages and improves .his qualifications, so
that he has the capacity of controlling the whole order of saints and
supervises their general conduct, he is said to be the Head of the order
of saints or an Acharya, and as such he follows and practises the five
kinds of conduct as given in Gatha 73.
They are as follows:-
of right belief ( Darshanachara ) performance of all those duties which
keep right-belief firm.
knowledge ( Jnanachara ) minute and detailed study of the scriptures, with
the view of increasing right knowledge.
observing saintly character, (Charitrachara ). Thirteen kinds of rules of
conduct have been described in Gathas 56-70.
Observing those rules regularly and flawlessly with the idea realising the
self is called Charitrachara.
of austerities ( Tapachara ) is the proper and regular observance of
twelve kinds of austerities (Tapas ) as fasting, etc., (vide
Tattwarthadhigama Sutra, Chapter IX, Sutras 19-20.)
soul-force ( Viryachara ) means the development of soul-force and
repulsion of the Karmic forces with the view of attaining liberation An
Acharya, as defined above, himself practises and observes all the
above-mentioned, five kinds of conduct, and instructs the saints of his
order to do the same. Any saint of the order who is in the 6th and the 7th
stages, is well versed in Jaina Scriptures, and is capable of teaching and
instructing other saints of order, is called the preceptor (Upadhyaya).
All other saints who are neither Acharyas nor Upadhyayas are known as
Sadhus. They may be in any spiritual stage from the 6th to the 12th
stages, where delusion is absolutely destroyed. From the 8th to the 12th,
all are the progressive stages of meditation. In these stages a saint is
deeply absorbed in meditation and self-realisation, and there it is
impracticable for him to observe and fulfil the main and special duties of
an Acharya or an Upadhyaya
A saint, after destroying the Delusion Karma ( Mohaniya ), reaches the
12th stage, and there finally destroys the three reaming destructive
Karmas, i. e., knowledge-obscuring, conation-obscuring and
obstructive Karmas, by dint of meditation and self-realisation. Then he
enters the 13th stage of Vibratory Omniscient ( Sayoga Jina ), where he is
known as Arhat or the Worshipful Lord. The Worshipful Lord proclaims Truth
to the world. When the same soul or the Worshipful Lord is about to be
entirely freed from Karmas and his vibratory activity has ceased, He is
said to have entered the 14th stage of Non-vibrating omniscient Lord (
Ayogi Jina ). During the very short period of this stage, the soul
destroys the remaining four Non-destructive Karmas, I. e., feeling
( Vedaniya ), body-making Karmas (Nama), family determining ( Gotra ) and
age ( Ayu) Karmas. Then the soul is finally free from all the
Karmas, and has accomplished all that was to be accomplished. Such a soul
is known as a Perfect Soul ( Siddha ). From the above, we note that a
soul, when it observes and follows the 13th rule of conduct, remains,
either in the condition of an Acharya, Upadhyaya or a Sadhu and the
attainment of the condition of being on Arhat or a Siddha is an outcome of
the observance of the rules of Right, Conduct. The Arhat and the Acharya,
Upadhaya and Sadhu are said to be Mahan-Atmas ( Great souls ). All the
above five, i-e.. the Arhats, Siddhas, Acharyas, Upadhayas, and
Sadhus are called the five supreme Dignitaries Pancha Parameshthi). It is
only these five Dignitaries, who are worshipped by the Jainas in general.
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76. From the practical point of view, ( all the previously mentioned )
meditations constitute Right Conduct; that ( which is known ) as Right
Conduct from the real point of view will be described further on.