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Kundakunda Pushpanjali




I.  Niyamasara ( Soul-Jiva )


II.  Non-Soul (Ajva)

  III.  Pure Thought-Activity, Shuddha Bhava

IV.  Practical Right Conduct, (Vyavahaar Charitra)

  V.  Repentance, (Pratikramana)
  VI.  Renunciation, (pratyakhyana)
  VII.  Confession, (Alochana)
  VIII.  Expiation, (Prayaschitta)
  IX.  Supreme Equanimity, (Parama Samadhi)
  X.  Supreme Devotion, (Parama Bhakti)
  XI.  Real Independence, (Nishchaya Avashaya)
  XII.  Pure Consciousness, (Shuddha Upayoga)

XIII.  Table

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Chapter IV - Practical Right Conduct, (Vyavahaar Charitra)



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          70.  ( From the real point of view ) refraining from  bodily  movements,  non-attachment to the body,  restraint of body or renunciation of causing injury, etc., is called control of body.



          From the real point of view, self-realisation is the path to liberation; but in order to reach the stage of self-realisation it is necessary that certain rules of conduct should be followed and practised. These rules are divided into ( 1 ) Laymen�s rules of conduct, and ( 2 ) saints� rules of conduct. The rules of conduct to be observed by a layman, only serve as a means to the partial control of his passions. If he wants to make further progress and attain perfection, he must adopt the rules of conduct laid down for saints These rules practically consist in the renunciation of all worldly possessions and occupations.


The practical right conduct to be observed by saints is of 13 kinds :-

Five vows :-

1.  Vow of non-injury.

2.  Vowoftnith.

3.  Vow of non-stealing.

4.  Vow of chastity.

5.  Vow of possessionlessness.


          The saints have to observe these rules fully, without any blemish or transgression, so that their thought-activities may remain pure and undisturbed, and they may be able to apply themselves to self-realisation.

6. Carefulness in walking.

7. Carefulness in speaking.

8. Carefulness in eating.

9. Carefulness in lifting up and laying down.

10. Carefulness in excreting.


Three kinds of control :-

11. Control of mind.

12. Control of speech.

13. Control of body.


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          71. Worshipful Lords ( Arhats ) are those who are entirely free from all the ( four ) destructive Karmas, arid are possessed of the highest attributes, Omniscience, etc., and crowned with the thirty-four extraordinary glories, ( Atishaya ).



          When a soul, following the rules of conduct laid down for the saints, as given in previous Gathas, realises the self and advances, on, till it reaches the with spiritual stage of vibratory omniscient ( Sayoga Kevali ), it is then that the soul is called Arhat or the Worshipful Lord. In this stage the .soul is still in the physical body and. reveals the Truth


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          72. those (souls ), who have destroyed the bondage of the eight Karmas, are possessed of the eight great attributes, abide at the topmost of the universe and are the most exalted and indestructible, are Perfect Souls ( Siddhas ).


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          73. Those ( saints ), who are possessed of five kinds of conduct, who have trampled down the fury of the elephant of five senses, who are firm in their determination, and who are profound in virtue are ( called ) Heads of the order of Saints, ( Acharya ).


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          74. Those ( saints ), who are brave, possessed of the three jewels, are preachers of the categories enunciated by the Conqueror ( Jina ), and are endowed with the thought-activity of desirelessness, are ( known ) as the Preceptors ( Upadhyaya ).


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          75, Those who are free from all ( worldly ) occupations, are always deeply absorbed in four kinds of contemplation ( Aradhana ) , and are possessionless and delusionless, are ( said ) to be the Saints, ( Sadhus ).



          According to Jaina Philosophy there are 14 spiritual stages of thought-activities, which a soul, desirous of being liberated and of attaining perfection has to pass through. .The first stage is of wrong belief; the second and third are the intervening progressive stages of thought-activities between wrong belief, and right belief of the 4th stage.

          A soul which enters the 4th stage is said to have reached the thresh-hold of liberation. At this stage, the soul has got only right belief. As soon as that soul begins to follow the practical vows of a layman, it is said to enter the 5th stage. Again when this very soul, rising higher up, renounces the world and observes the vows fully and wholly, it is said to have entered the 6th and 7th stages, where it is known as a saint. While a saint remains in these two stages and improves .his qualifications, so that he has the capacity of controlling the whole order of saints and supervises their general conduct, he is said to be the Head of the order of saints or an Acharya, and as such he follows and practises the five kinds of conduct as given in Gatha 73.


          They are as follows:-

          (a) Conduct, of right belief ( Darshanachara ) performance of all those duties which keep right-belief firm.

          (b) Conduct of knowledge ( Jnanachara ) minute and detailed study of the scriptures, with the view of increasing right knowledge.

          (c) Conduct of observing saintly character, (Charitrachara ). Thirteen kinds of rules of conduct have been described in Gathas 56-70.

          Observing those rules regularly and flawlessly with the idea realising the self is called Charitrachara.

          (d) Conduct, of austerities ( Tapachara ) is the proper and regular observance of twelve kinds of austerities (Tapas ) as fasting, etc., (vide Tattwarthadhigama Sutra, Chapter IX, Sutras 19-20.)

          (e) Conduct of soul-force ( Viryachara ) means the development of soul-force and repulsion of the Karmic forces with the view of attaining liberation An Acharya, as defined above, himself practises and observes all the above-mentioned, five kinds of conduct, and instructs the saints of his order to do the same. Any saint of the order who is in the 6th and the 7th stages, is well versed in Jaina Scriptures, and is capable of teaching and instructing other saints of order, is called the preceptor (Upadhyaya).


          All other saints who are neither Acharyas nor Upadhyayas are known as Sadhus. They may be in any spiritual stage from the 6th to the 12th stages, where delusion is absolutely destroyed. From the 8th to the 12th, all are the progressive stages of meditation. In these stages a saint is deeply absorbed in meditation and self-realisation, and there it is impracticable for him to observe and fulfil the main and special duties of an Acharya or an Upadhyaya

          A saint, after destroying the Delusion Karma ( Mohaniya ), reaches the 12th stage, and there finally destroys the three reaming destructive Karmas, i. e., knowledge-obscuring, conation-obscuring and obstructive Karmas, by dint of meditation and self-realisation. Then he enters the 13th stage of Vibratory Omniscient ( Sayoga Jina ), where he is known as Arhat or the Worshipful Lord. The Worshipful Lord proclaims Truth to the world. When the same soul or the Worshipful Lord is about to be entirely freed from Karmas and his vibratory activity has ceased, He is said to have entered the 14th stage of Non-vibrating omniscient Lord ( Ayogi Jina ). During the very short period of this stage, the soul destroys the remaining four Non-destructive Karmas, I. e., feeling ( Vedaniya ), body-making Karmas (Nama), family determining ( Gotra ) and age ( Ayu) Karmas. Then the soul is finally free from all the Karmas, and has accomplished all that was to be accomplished. Such a soul is known as a Perfect Soul ( Siddha ). From the above, we note that a soul, when it observes and follows the 13th rule of conduct, remains, either in the condition of an Acharya, Upadhyaya or a Sadhu and the attainment of the condition of being on Arhat or a Siddha is an outcome of the observance of the rules of Right, Conduct. The Arhat and the Acharya, Upadhaya and Sadhu are said to be Mahan-Atmas ( Great souls ). All the above five, i-e.. the Arhats, Siddhas, Acharyas, Upadhayas, and Sadhus are called the five supreme Dignitaries Pancha Parameshthi). It is only these five Dignitaries, who are worshipped by the Jainas in general.


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          76. From the practical point of view, ( all the previously mentioned ) meditations constitute Right Conduct; that ( which is known ) as Right Conduct from the real point of view will be described further on.