Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
Foreword
I. JAINA TRADITION UPTO MAHAVIRA
II. PRINCE MAHAVIRA
IV. PRECEPTS OF MAHAVIRA
V. DOCTRINES OF MAHAVIRA
  VII. SIGNIFICANCE OF MAHAVIRA

Chapter V - DOCTRINES OF MAHAVIRA

 

Dr. V.A.Sangave

(II) Rules of Conduct for Ascetics.

When a layman consistently observes the rules of conduct prescribed for the householders and especially attains all pratimas, he is qualified to become an ascetic. In this way there is a close link between the two social orders of laity and and ascetics. The order of laymen (including laywomen) is preliminary and, in many cases, preparatory to the order of monks (including nuns). Because of this intimate relationship we find that the rules prescribed for laymen and ascetics do not differ in kind but in degree. The same rules of conduct' observed by laymen are to be followed by ascetics with the only difference that while laymen have to practise them partially or less rigorously, ascetics have to observe them fully and more rigorously. Thus the Anuvratas, i.e small vows, of the householders become Mahavratas, i.e. great vows, when practised by ascetics. This is obvious because the ascetic stage signifies absolute renunciation of the world and the only objective in this stage is to concentrate energy on the attainment of Moksha, i.e. liberation. Asceticism is a higher course in spiritual training and it is in this stage real efforts are made for the stoppage of influx of Karmas and the shedding of existing Karmas with a view to attain liberation. Therefore very minute rules of conduct are prescribed for the ascetics and the latter have to observe them without any fault or transgression.

The stoppage of influx of fresh Karmic matter into the Atman or soul is known as Samvara and it is effected by following, .

(a) three kinds of Gupti, i.e. control,

(b) (b) five kinds of Samiti, i.e. carefulness,

(c) ten kinks of Dharma, i.e. virtues,

(d) twelve kinds of Anupreksha, i.e. meditations or reflections,

(e) twenty-two kinds of Parishaha-Jaya, i.e. subdual of sufferings, and

(f) five kinds of Charitra, i.e. conduct.

(a)The Guptis : The flow of Karmas into the Atman or soul is caused by the activities of body, speech and mind; so it is quite necessary for the ascetics to keep these channels of influx under strict control, i.e. to observe the Guptis. The three guptis are regulations with reference to controlling one's inner nature, that is, they are dictated by the principles of self-control, (i) The first of them is Mano-Gupti, i.e. regulation of mind in such a way as to give room only to pure thoughts. (ii) The second Vag-gupti, i.e. regulations of speech and it consists in observing silence for a particular period or in speaking only as much as is absolutely necessary. (iii) The third is Kaya-gupti, i.e. regulation of one's bodily activity.

(b)Samitis : It is just possible that even in performing the uties of an ascetic, the vows might be transgressed out of inadvertence. Hence as a

precautionery measure the Samitis, i.e. acts of carefulness are prescribed. The Samitis are designed with a view to cultivate the habit of carefulness in accordance with the principle of Ahimsa, i.e. non-injury. The Samitis are prescriptions for the regulation of the movements of the body and are as follows :

(i) The Irya Samiti aims at regulation of walking, so as not to injure any living being.

(ii) The Bhasha Samiti regulates the mode of speech with a view to avoid the hurting of other's feelings by use of offensive words.

(iii) The Eshana Samiti regulates seeking or eating food so , as not to cause any injury to any living being.

(iv) The Adana-Nikshepa Samiti regulates the actions of taking or using, and of putting away, anything whatsoever.

(v) The Utsarga Samiti regulates the movements connected with the answering of call of nature, etc. Both the three Guptis and five Samitis are sometimes grouped

together under the name of "Ashta-Pravachana-Mata", i.e. "The Eight mothers of the Creed", on account of their fundamental character.

(c)The Dharmas : It is mainly due to the Kashayas, i.e. passions, that the soul assimilates Karmas, hence the four passions of Krodha, i.e. angar, Mana, i.e. pride, Maya, i.e. de ceptions and Lobha,

i.e. greed, must be counteracted by cultivating ten Uttama Dharmas, i.e. Supreme virtues, as follows :

(i) Uttama-Kshama, i.e. supreme forgiveness,
(ii) Uttama-Mardava, i.e. Supreme tenderness or humility,
(iii) Uttama-Arjava,i.e.n Supremestraightforwar dnessor honesty,
(iv) Uttam-Shaucha, i.e. Supreme contentment or purity,
(v) Uttama-S'atya i.e. Supreme truthfulness.
(vi) Uttama-Samyama, i.e. Supreme Self-restraint,
(vii) Uttama-Tapa, i.e. Supreme austerities,
(viii)Uttama-Tyaga, i.e. Supreme renunciation,
(ix) Uttama-Akinchanya, i.e. Supreme non-attachment, and
(x)Uttama-Brahmacharya, i.e. Supreme chastity.

These ten virtues together are termed as Dashalakshana Dharma, i.e. the ten observances.

(a) Anuprekshas :With a view to cultivate the necessary religious attitude, it is enjoined on the ascetics to constantly reflect on twelve religious topics know as Anuprekshas, i.e. meditations. It is laid down that these Anuprekshas should be meditated upon again and again.The tweleve Anuprekshas are as follows :

(i)Anitya anuprekshas, i.e. everything is subject to change or is transitory.

(ii)Asharana anupreksha, i.e. unprotectiveness or help lessness. The feeling that soul is unprotected from fruition of Karmas, for example, death etc.

(iii) Samsara anupreksha, i.e. mundaneness. Soul moves in the cycle of existences and cannot attain true happiness till it is cut off.

(iv) Ekatva anuprelcsha, i.e. loneliness. I am alone, the doer of my actions and the enjoyer of the fruits of them.

(v) Anyatva anupreksha, i.e. separatness. The world, my relation and friends, my body and mind, they are all distinct and separate from my real self.

(vi) Ashuchi anupreksha, i.e. impurity. The body is impure and dirty.

(vii) Ashram anupreksha, i.e. inflow. The inflow of Kar-mas is the cause of my mundane existence and it is; the product of passions.

(viii) Samvara anupreksha, i.e. stoppage. The inflow of Karma must be stopped by cultivating necessary virtues.

(ix) Nirjara anuprelcsha, i.e. shedding. Karmic mattershould be destroyed or shaken out of the soul by the practice of penances.

(x) Loka anupreksha, i.e. universe. The nature of the, universe and its constituent elements in all their vast variety proving the insignificance and miserable nothingness of man in time and space.

(xi) Bodhi-durlabha anupreksha i.e. rarity of religious, knowledge. It is difficult to attain right faith, knowledge and conduct.

(xii) Dharma arzupreksha, i.e. reflection on the true nature of religion and especially on the threefold path of liberation as preached by the conquerors.

Sometimes these Anuprekshas, are termed as Bhavanas, i.e.. contemplations.