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Prof. Sagarmal Jain

We are living in the age of science and technology. The growth of the scientific knowledge and technology have given new dimensions to our life and influenced each and every field of our living. Science has done a great service to mankind by providing amenities of pleasant living and saved him from many miseries and uncertainties of the primitive past. It has also destroyed many superstitions and religious dogmas, but at the same time it has also uprooted the moral, religious and cultural values of our society. Our traditional religious values and beliefs have been thrown away by this growth of scientific knowledge and out-look. We know much about the atom but not about the values needed for a meaningful and peaceful life. We are living in the state of chaos. Our life is full of excitements, emotional disorders and value conflicts. Thus our age is also the age of anxiety and mental tensions.


Today what is needed for a man, is mental peace and a complete integration with his own personality as well as with his social environment. Can religion, in general and Jainism in particular meet this need of our times? Yes, it can. Religion for Jain thinkers, does not mean some superstitions, dogmas and rituals, it has some eternal virtues and values, which can meet the needs of the time. First of all we should try to understand its real meaning and essence.


The Essence of Religion


Our fundamental question is what we mean by the term religion? Many of the western scholars define religion as faith. Prof. E. B. Taylor writes �Religion is the belief in spiritual beings.�1 Prof., Hoffding mentions �Religion is faith in the conservation of values.�2 According to Jaina thinkers also the inner core of religion is faith, but it is the faith in our own existence and our own real nature, religion is a firm belief in some eternal and spiritual values which are more essential for the uplift and existence of mankind. In the famous Jaina text, Kartikeyanupreksa dharma (religion) is defined as the real nature of the things.3 If it is so, then question arises what is the real nature of human being? Lord Mahavira has given two definitions of religion in Acarangasutra. He says �Worthy people preach that the religion is mental equanimity.�4 Equanimity is considered as a core or essence of religion, because it is the real nature or essence of all the living beings including human beings also. In a Jaina text known as Bhagavati-sutra there is a conversation between Lord Mahavira and Gautama.5 Gautama asked Mahavira �What is the nature of soul?� and Mahavira answered �The nature of soul is equanimity.� Gautama again asked �What is ultimate end of soul?� and Mahavira replied �The ultimate end of soul is also equanimity.� Acarya Knndakunda also equated the word �samaya� or �samata� with svabhava or essential nature of soul, further he also explained �Sva-samaya or sva-svabhava is the ultimate goal of our life.�


In Jainism, religion is nothing but a practice for the realization of our own essential nature of sva-svabhava. This enjoying of one�s own essential nature means to remain constant in sakibhava or drastahava. It is the state of pure knowership or subjectivity. In this state the consciousness is completely free from constant flickerings, excitements and emotional disorders and mind becomes pacific. It is the pre-condition for enjoying spiritual happiness and the way to get freedom from mental tensions, which are the vibhavas or impure states of mind. This is known in Jainism as samayika or practice for equanimity of mind. Nobody wants to live in a state of mental tensions, every one would like no tension but relaxation, not anxiety but satisfaction. This shows that our real nature is working in us for a mental peace or equanimity and religion is nothing but a way of achieving this mental peace. According to Jainism the duty of a religious order is to explain the means by which man can achieve the equanimity of mind or mental peace. In Jainism this method of achieving mental peace and equanimity is called samayika, which is the first and foremost duty among six essential duties of the monks and the householders.


The three-fold path of right knowledge, right attitude and right conduct is only an application of equanimity (samatva) in the three aspects of our conscious life i.e. knowing, feeling and willing. Even mindedness, broader and unbiased outlook and regard for others ideologies and thoughts are regarded as equanimity of knowledge or right knowledge. Detachment from the objects of worldly pleasures, balanced state of mind and the feeling of equality are considered as equanimity of feeling i.e. right attitude or samyak-darsana and control over one�s desires, regard for other�s life and property, equal treatment in social life are known as equanimity of willing or right conduct. Again, right conduct consists of three organs i.e. mind, body and speech. According to Jaina thinkers

 equanimity of mind, body and speech should be a directive principle of religious life. The equanimity of mind is non-attachment (anasakti or aparigraha), equanimity of body is non-violence (ahimsa) and equanimity of speech is non-absolutism (anekanta or syadvada). Non-attachment, non-violence and non-absolutism are the three pillars of Jainism, and are fully competent to meet the needs of our age and to establish peace and harmony in the world.


Non-attachment and Regard for Other�s Necissities

As I have already mentioned that most burning problem of our age is the problem of mental tensions. The nations, who claim more civilized and economically more advance are much more in the grip of mental tensions. The main objective of Jainism is to emancipate man form his sufferings and mental tensions. First of all we must know that what is the cause of these mental tensions. For, Jainism, the basic human sufferings are not physical, but mental. These mental sufferings or tensions are due to our attachment towards worldly objects. It is the attachment, which is fully responsible for them. The famous Jaina text Uttaradhyayana-sutra mentions �The root of all sufferings physical as well as mental of every body including gods, is attachment towards the objects of worldly enjoyment.�7 It is the attachment which is the root cause of mental tensions. According to Lord Mahavira to remain attached to sensuous objects is to remain in the whirl. He says �Misery is gone in the case of a man who has no delusion, while delusion is gone in the case of a man who has no desire, desire is gone in the case of a man who has no greed, while greed is gone in the case of a man who has no attachment.�8 The efforts made to satisfy the human desires through material objects can be likened to the chopping off of the branches while watering the roots. Thus we can conclude that the lust for and the attachment towards the objects or worldly pleasure is the sole cause of human suffering.


If mankind is to be freed from mental tensions it is necessary to grow a detached outlook in life. Jainism believes that the lesser will be the attachment the greater will be the mental peace. It is only when attachment is vanished, the human mind will be free from mental tensions and emotional disorders. For this Jainism preaches the vow of complete nonpossession for the ascetics and the vow to limit ones own possession for the house holders, which are technically called as aparigraha-mahavrata and parigraha-parimana-vrata respectively.


Non-Violence or Regard for Life


Samata or equanimity is a personal or inner aspect of our religious life, when it is applied in the social life or it is practiced outwardly, it becomes non-violence. Thus non-violence is a social or outer aspect of our religious life. In Acaranga Lord Mahavira give another definition of religion. He remarks--


�The worthy men of the past, present and the future all say thus, speak thus, declare thus, explain thus: all breathing, existing, living and sentient creatures should not be slain, nor treated with violence, nor abused, nor tormented. This is the pure, eternal and unchangeable law or the tenet of religion.�9 In other words, non-violence is the eternal and pure form of religion. In Jainsim non-violence is the pivot on which its whole ethics revolves. For Jains violence represents all the vices and non-violence represents all the virtues. Non-violence is not a single virtue but it is a group of virtues. In Prasnavyakarana-sutra the term non-violence is equated with sixty virtuous qualities, just as peace, harmony, welfare, trust and fearlessness, etc.10 Thus non-violence is a wider term, which comprehends all the good qualities and virtues.


The concept of non-violence and the regard for life is accepted by almost all the religions of the world. But none of the religions obsere it so minutely as Jainism. Jainism prohibits not only killing of human beings and animals but of the vegetable kingdom also. To hurt the plants is also an act of violence or himsa. It�s basic principle is that the life, in whatever form it may be, should be respected, we have no right to take another�s life, because everyone wants to live as we do. The Dasavaikalika mentions that everyone wants to live and not to die, for this simple reason, Nigganthas prohibit violence.11 It can be said that the Jaina concept of non-violence is extremist and not practical, but we cannot challenge its relevance for human society. Though Jainism sets its goal as the ideal of total non-violence, external as well as internal, yet the realization of this ideal in the practical life is by no means easy. Non-violence is a spiritual ideal, which is fully realizable only in the spiritual plane. The real life of an individual is a physio-spiritual complex; at this level complete non-violence is not possible. According to Jaina thinkers the violence is of four kinds (i)Deliberate or aggressive violence i.e. intentional killing. (ii) Protective violence i.e. resorting to violence to save the life of one�s own or his fellow being or to ensure peace and justice in the society, (iii) Occupational violence i.e, the violence which one commits in his occupation such as farming, tilling the soil or running factories and industries, (iv) Violence, which is involved in performing the daily routine work of a house-holder such as bathing, cooking, walking etc. A person can proceed toward the fullness of non-violent life to the extent as he rises above the physical level. The first form of violence, which is deliberate, is to be shunned by all, because it relates to our mental proclivities. So far as the thoughts are concerned, a man is his own master, so it is obligator for all to be non-violent in this sphere. The other forms of violence i.e. protective, occupational and violence involved in daily routine work are inevitable so far as man is living on a physical level, but this does not mean that the ideal of nonviolence is not practicable and so it is not necessary for human race.