Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)

X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers



Doha:  Is bhavatrooka mool ik, janhu mithyabhav

Tako kari nirmal ab,  kariye moksh upav


Meaning Oh ! Bhavya Jina ! the false belief is to be known as the only root cause of this world-tree (the ocean of transmigration).  You should immediately uproot it and must make effort for attaining liberation.


Now such false belief which is found in Jivas who are Jains and obey the commandments of omniscient Jina is being described; because even the slightest trace of this false belief is suicidal; hence even the subtle and latent false belief too must be forsaken.


In Jina's scripture (Agama) descriptions are found from two angles - the one is Nishchaya (the real standpoint) and the other Vyavahara (the unreal and conventional standpoint. In them the real standpoint (Yathartha) is called Nishchaya and the unreal or conventional standpoint (Upachara) is called Vyavahara. Without knowing their real nature people indulge in contrary practices, the same is being described here:


The Misbelievers Possessing Wrong Concept of Nishchaya


Many Jivas believe themselves to be the true followers of the path of liberation although they have misconception about Nishchaya and do not know its real nature. They believe as if they have realized the self-soul like Siddha�s.  Actually, they are worldly people but due to delusion they believe that they are like Siddhas. This is their wrong conception.


In Shastras wherever the soul has been described to be like Siddha Gods is from the substantial (Dravya-drishti) point of view; but from the modificational (Paryaya) point of view it is not like Siddha Gods. For example, a king and a pauper man both are alike from the manhood point of view but they are not alike from the king-hood and poorness point of view. Similarly, the Siddhas and the mundane beings are alike from the sentience (Jivatva) point of view but from the Siddhahood and the Mundaneness point of view they are not alike; yet these misbelievers believe themselves to be as pure as are the Siddhas. But the pure and impure state is a modification. If alikeness is believed from the modificational (Paryaya) point of view then it is false belief.


Further, they believe themselves to be possessing omniscience (Kewal-Jnan, i.e., Kshayik-Jnan) but clearly they are found possessing the sensory and scriptural knowledge (Mati and Shrut-jnan) only which is of Kshayopashamic form of knowledge only. But the Kshayik-Bhava is evolved on destruction of its obscuring karma and these people under fallacy believe evolution of Kshayik-Bhava even without the destruction of karmas, so, this is their false belief.


Wherever in the Shastras omniscience is stated to be the nature of Jivas, it is from the potentiality point of view; because all Jivas possess the potentiality of the evolution of omniscience (Kewal-Jnan).  But only on its manifestation in the present state its existence is accepted.


Someone believes that "In the spatial units (Predates) of the soul the omniscience (Kewal-Jnan) always exists manifested, but it is not clearly visible being hidden under the veil of karmas." But this is a fallacy. If omniscience is found manifested then it knows the things clearly even on getting obstructed by the layers of adamantine like things. How could it be obstructed by barricade of karmas? Therefore, due to instrumentality of karmas the omniscience is non-existent. If omniscience were found in all states of Jivas then it would have been termed as Parinamik-Bhava but it is a Kshayik-Bhava.  Such Chaitanya-Bhava (eternal consciousness) in which all kinds of qualities are found existing is termed as Parinamik-Bhava. Its various states are of the form of sensory & scriptural knowledge (Mati-Shrut Jnan etc.) and of omniscience (Kewal-Jnan) form; these states are not Parinamik-Bhava. Therefore, the existence of the state of omniscience (Kewal-Jnan) is not found always.


Moreover, in the Shastras the example of sun (with reference to omniscience) is to be interpreted to mean that as due to the obstruction caused by clouds the light of sun is not visible, similarly, due to the rise of karmas omniscience is not manifested. But it should not be understood to mean that omniscience always remains in the soul in all states as the light remains in the sun; because the example is not found fit in all respects.  For example, the color attribute is found in the matter (Pudgal) substance; green-yellow, etc. are its various states but if any one of these states is found in the present, the other states are absent. Similarly, the Chaitanya Guna (consciousness-attribute) is found in the soul; sensory knowledge, scriptural knowledge, etc. are its states but if any one of these states are found in the presentation the nature is said to have been manifested. Sometimes it is found manifested. Similarly, due to the instrumentality of (rise of) karma the soul assumes alienated (contrary) disposition. In such a situation, there is only absence of omniscience (Kewal-Jnan); but on the removal of the instrumentality of karmas omniscience is evolved for ever.  Therefore, omniscience is said to be the nature of the soul for all times, because such power is always found. On its manifestation, the nature is said to have been manifested.


For example, however, if someone drinks hot water due to the belief that the nature of water is always cool, then burning (of mouth) only will be caused. Similarly, if because of the omniscience nature of the soul, someone (due to misconception) believes that he is realizing the pure soul though his soul is in an impure state, he himself becomes miserable only. In this way, those who realize the soul to be possessing the omniscience state are misbelievers.


Moreover, due to misconception they believe their soul to be devoid of passional dispositions, though the passional dispositions are clearly found in them. To such persons our question is - "The passional dispositions (feelings) are clearly seen in you; tell us as to in which substance's existence these are found? If these are found existing in the body or karmic-matter, then these dispositions should either be insentient or of material form; but these passional dispositions are clearly seen to be of immaterial form with sentience.  These dispositions are, therefore, of the soul substance only. This is what is stated in the Samayasara Kalasha also:


Karyatvadkrint na karm na cha tajjeevprkrityordvayo

Rakshaya prkritai svkaryphalbhugbhavanushangatkriti

Naeksya prkritairchitvalsanajjeevosth karta tato

Jeevsyaev cha karm tachidnugan gyata yat pudgala                    (203)


The meaning of this verse is this:


As the psychic passional dispositions (Bhavakarma) are found existing, therefore, it cannot be said that they are not generated by some body, because these are definitely deeds of some doer. Further, these cannot be treated as being produced by both Jiva and karmic matter; because if it be so, then the material karmas should also bear the consequence of psychic dispositions in the form of happiness and misery, which is impossible. Further, it is not the act of karmic matter alone, because it obviously possesses insentient nature. Therefore, the producer of these psychic passional dispositions is soul only and these passional dispositions are the deeds of soul only; because the psychic dispositions are sentient by nature, these cannot be produced without sentience and matter does not possess sentience.


Thus, the psychic passional dispositions are found in the existence of Jiva.


Now, those Jivas who believe that passional dispositions are produced only by the instrumentality of karma maintain that they are non-doers of the same; although they are the real doers. But because they want to remain reckless and irresponsible, therefore, they put the full blame for these dispositions on karmas. So, this is their distressing delusion.


The same is stated in Samayasara Kalasha also:


Ragjanmani nimitan pardravymaiv klyanti yai tu tai

Utaranti na hi mohvahinee shudhbodhvidhurandhbudhya                      (221)


The meaning of this is:


Those Jivas who believe in the instrumentality of other substance only in the evolution of passional dispositions are devoid of right knowledge and are blindwitted, being so, they are incapable of crossing the river of delusion.


Further, in the Sarva Vishuddha Jnana Adhikara of Samayasara such a person who believes the soul to be the non-doer (Akarta and says that a Karmas alone make Jivas sleep and awake, injury is caused by Parghata-Karma, unchastity by Veda-karma, therefore, the karma alone is the doer," - a Jain having such belief is a Sankhymati (believer of Sankhya faith) because like that of a Sankhyamati he too lives unrestrained treating the soul to be always pure.


Moreover, such a faith resulted in the fault of disowning passional dispositions and one considered oneself as non- doer.  Therefore, one became fearless in indulging in passional acts and so did not make any effort for removal of such feelings of attachment, etc. Due to such belief, one becomes unrestrained and indulges in evil acts which cause bondage of karmas and result in infinite transmigration in the world.


Here one argues that in Samayasara too it is stated so:


Varn.adya va ragmohadyo va bhinna  bhava sarv aivasya puns

Tainaevantstatvat pshyatomo na drishta syurdrishtmaikam pran syat            (37)


Meaning: "The color, etc. and attachment aversion, etc. are the dispositions which are separate from the soul." Further it is stated there that attachment, etc. dispositions bear the imprint of matter and in the other Shastras also the soul is described as unconcerned with attachment, etc. How this is so?


Answer: The attachment, etc. feelings are evolved as impure dispositions (Aupadhik-Bhavas) due to instrumentality of other substance and this Jiva believes them to be his natural dispositions.  Why would one believe as bad and try to uproot such feelings which he believes to be natural instincts? Therefore, this faith also is perverse. To extricate one from such belief, the attachment, etc.  impure dispositions are described to be different from the nature of the soul and the same are described to be of material by laying emphasis on instrumental cause. For example, a physician wants to cure the disease; if he finds excess of cold then he prescribes hot medicine and if he finds excess heat then he prescribes cold medicine. Similarly, the true preceptor wishes to extricate the attachment, etc. passional feelings.  To such Jivas who become unrestrained and indolent by believing the attachment, etc. feelings to be the product of other substance, the true preceptor makes them believes, by laying emphasis on the substantive cause (upadan karan), that the attachment, etc. feelings are of the soul; and to such Jivas who do not try to uproot the impure dispositions, believing them to be the nature of the soul, the true preceptor make, them believe by laying emphasis on instrumental cause, that the attachment, etc. impure dispositions are the products of other substance.