Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Introduction
Prologue
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)
  Glossary

X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers

 

 

See ! the glory of reflection on Tattvas ! Without reflection on Tattvas one may have staunch faith in true Deva, etc., may study many Shastras, observe vows, etc., undergo penances, etc., even then he is not entitled to evolve right belief, whereas one who reflects on Tattvas is entitled to evolve right belief even without these (conventional activities).

 

Further, some Jiva, under some circumstances, before reflecting on Tattvas, may develop faith in true deity, etc., observes vows and penances and afterwards may start reflecting on Tattvas but he is entitled to evolve right belief only on reflection on Tattvas. 

 

And someone even after reflection on Tattvas may not evolve right belief due to lack of ascertainment of faith in Tattvas and becomes interested in conventional religious practices, therefore, he develops faith in true deity, etc. and engages himself in observance of vows, penances, etc. Some other person may develop faith in true deity, etc. and simultaneously evolves right belief and in some cases observance of vows, penances, etc. maybe found along with evolution of right belief or may be before or afterwards too. However, faith in true deity, etc. is essential because without it right belief cannot be evolved, but there is no such rule regarding observance of vows, etc.  Many Jivas, first of all, attain right belief and only afterwards start observance of vows, etc., whereas in the case of some Jivas evolution of right belief and observance of vows, etc. is found together. In this way, the Jiva who reflects on Tattvas is entitled to evolve right belief but there is no such rule that he would invariably attain right belief because in the scriptures attainment of five types of capacities (Labdhis) is stated to be essential before manifestation of right belief.

 

Characteristics of Five Labdhis

(Five Types of Capacity Attainments)

 

The attainment of capacities (Labdhis) is of five types:-

 

(1) Kshayopashama: (Specific state of destruction cum subsidence of knowledge obscuring karmas), i.e., attainment of rational knowledge,

 

(2) Vishuddhi: (Feeble state of passions),

 

(3) Deshana: (Listening to and grasping of the Jina's preaching)

 

(4) Prayogya: (Competency of thought activity)

 

(5) Karana: (Efficiency attainment to engross in self-soul).

 

on evolution of which the reflection on Tattvas (Tattva- Vichara) is possible - such a kind of Kshayopashama be evolved, i.e., the absence of the rise of the Nishekas (atoms) of totally destructive type of Spardhakas (karmas) of which the rise- time has fallen due is the Kshya (destruction) and their remaining in the inoperative existing form with the capability of coming into rise in future instants is Upashma (subsidence) and followed by risen state of partially destructive type of Spardhakas - such a condition of the karmas is named as Kshayopashama; attainment of such capacity is the Kshayopashama Labdhi. 

 

And due to feeble rise of Moha (deluding karma) the evolution of mild passion form of thoughts takes place wherein the reflection on Tattvas (Tattvavichara) be possible; attainment of such capacity is called Vishuddhi-Labdhi (feeble state of passions).

 

Further, where the grasping of and deliberation on Tattvas preached by Jinadeva (omniscient Lord) takes place - attainment of this capacity is Deshana-Labdhi (precept attainment). In hells, etc.  where the instrumentality of (listening to) precepts is not possible, this capacity is evolved by virtue of impressions gained in the past birth.

 

Further, when the previously bonded duration of karmas (excepting age karma) gets reduced to the level of an Antar Koda-Kodi Sagaras (within crores into crores Sagaras, i.e., innumerable years) and the duration of fresh bondage of the level of an Antar Koda-Kodi Sagaras would have got reduced to its numerable division, that too, right from the start of the time of that Labdhi shall continue getting reduced gradually and the fresh bondage of many of the demeritorious Prakritis (inauspicious karmas) shall be going on ending gradually - thus attaining of such a worthy state of thoughts & dispositions is Prayogya Labdhi (competence attainment).

 

Attainments of these four capacities are possible to both Bhavya (capable) and Abhavya (incapable) souls. It is stated in Labdhisara that after attainment of these four Labdhis (capacities) the right belief may or may not get evolved. Therefore, there is no rule about the evolution of right belief to the Jiva who reflects on Tattvas. For example, someone was imparted instruction for his well being;  knowing it, he may ponder over it as to how is this instruction beneficial to him? Later on after deliberation he may conclude that �It is so only"-such conviction about that instruction may be evolved; alternatively, he might think contrarily or get involved in other thoughts and may not ascertain about the benefit from that instruction and so, he may not develop faith in it. Similarly, the revered preceptor preached him about Tattvas, knowing it he may ponder over it as to how is this preaching beneficial? Later on, after deliberation he may conclude that "It is so only" - such conviction may get evolved, alternatively, he might think contrarily or get involved in other thoughts and may not ascertain about the benefit from that preaching and so he may not develop faith in it. So, the prime cause is the rise of Mithyatva karma (faith-deluding karma); when there is no rise of it then true faith gets evolved; if its rise is not subsided then true faith is also not evolved. This is the rule. One's duty is only to make efforts for reflection on Tattvas (Tattva-vichara). 

 

And it is the rule that on evolution of fifth Karana-Labdhi (efficiency attainment) the right belief invariably gets manifested.  Karana-Labdhi is evolved to such Jiva only who has already attained the first four Labdhis and who is definitely to attain right belief after one Antar-Muhurta.

 

Therefore, the duty of this Jiva of Karana-Labdhi is only to willfully engross his Upayoga with concentration in reflection on Tattvas; due to this, at every moment, his thoughts & dispositions get more and more purified. For example, some Jiva developed such pure thinking about the instruction which he received that because of which he would shortly attain staunch faith in it. Similarly, the thought activity of this Jiva (of Karana-Labdhi) about the preaching of Tattvas started becoming so pure that due to which he would soon attain right belief. Further, the sequential (instant after instant) manifestation of these thoughts as seen by omniscience is described in Karanaanuyoga (aetiology).

 

There are three stages of this Karana-Labdhi: (i)Adhah-Karana, (ii) Apoorva-Karana, and (iii) Anivritti Karana respectively. The detailed exposition of these is given in Labdhisara Shastra. One should know the details from there. Here it is being described in short:

 

These three names are from the viewpoint of thoughts of all Jivas of Karana-Labdhi of all the three times (present, past & future). Karana is the name of Jiva's thoughts &

dispositions (Parinaamas). 

 

Where the dispositions of prior and posterior moments are uniform, it is called Adhah-Karana (slow progressive thought activity). For example, the dispositions of some particular Jiva in the first moment of that Karana were having less purity; afterwards, moment after moment, the purity in dispositions went on increasing infinite times progressively. And whatever types of dispositions he may be having in the second-third, etc. moments, similar dispositions can be found in some other Jiva in the first moment and the purity indisposition�s of these other Jivas maybe increasing moment after moment infinite times progressively in comparison to the first Jiva. Such is the state of dispositions in Adhah-Pravritti Karana. 

 

And where the dispositions of prior and posterior moments are not uniform but are necessarily unique (Apoorva) only, such stage is called Apoorva-Karana (highly progressive thought activity). For example, the dispositions of that Karana found in its first moment are not found to be of the same purity of any other Jiva who is in the second, etc. moments, rather are increasingly more and more pure.  And here in this state, like  Adhah-Karana, the Jivas who are found to be in the first moment only, the dispositions of all those Jivas may be found to be uniformly pure or may be with more or less degree of purity also; but here the speciality is this that the lowest order purity of dispositions of the Jivas belonging to second, etc. moments are found to be having infinite times more purity than that of the highest degree of purity of the Jiva of first moment. Similarly, the dispositions of all those Jivas who after entering this Karana have reached in the second, etc. moments, may be either uniformly pure or may have different degrees of purity, but the dispositions of Jivas of higher moments are not at all found to be of identical purity but are found to be of greater and greater degree of purity in comparison to the Jiva of lower moments. Such are dispositions in the state of Apoorva-Karana (highly progressive thought activity).

 

Samye samye bhin.a bhava tmha apuvvkaran.o hu

Jmha uvrimbhava haitthimbhavaihin n.atthi sarisatan

Tmha vidiyan karan.  Apuvvkarn.aiti nidhtthan      ---(51, Labdhisar)

Karan.an paripamo apuvvan.i cha tan.i karan.an.i cha apuvvakan.an.i  asaman.parin.ama ti jan utan hodi     --------  ( Dhavala,   1-9-8-4)

 

And wherein the dispositions of Jivas of the same moments are of uniform purity only and are not of different degrees of purity - such state of dispositions is called Anivritti- Karana. The dispositions of all Jivas in the first moment of this Karana are necessarily identical; similarly all Jivas of the second, etc. moments also have identical purity of dispositions. Further, the purity of dispositions of all Jivas of second, etc. moments are always with infinite times more purity than the Jivas of the first moments.

 

In this way, one should know these three stages of Karanas.

 

Aigsamye vatthantan. Jeevan.an parin.amaihi n.a vijadai n.iytthee n.ivvitee jatth tai an.iyttheeparin.ama ------   (Dhavala   1-9-8-4)

Aikkmhi kalsamyai santhn.adeehin jeh n.ivattati

n.a n.ivatthati taha viya parin.amaihin miho jaihin    -------(56,  Go. Sa. / Jee. Ka.)

 

There, the duration of Adhah-Karana is one Antar-Muhurta wherein four essentials take place: (i) moment after moment infinite times more purity arises, (ii) the duration of fresh karmic bondage goes on decreasing by one Antar-Muhurta at every moment, this is Sthiti-Bandhaapasarana (reduction in duration of bondage), (iii) the fruition of auspicious Prakritis (karmas) goes on increasing by infinite times more at every moment and (iv) the fruition-bondage of inauspicious Prakritis goes on decreasing by infinite part at every moment; thus the four essentials take place.

 

Thereafter, Apoorva-Karana starts. Its duration is a fractional numerical part of the period of Adhah-Karana. Here also the aforesaid four essentials take place: (i) whatever was the duration of the existing past karmas, he decreases it by one-one Antar-Muhurta every moment, this is Sthiti Kandak- Ghata (destruction of duration bondage); (ii) further he decreases the fruition of the existing past karmas by one-one Antar-Muhurta of lesser time than the earlier one; this is Anubhaga Kandak-Ghata (destruction of fruition bondage) and (iii) in the period of Guna-Shreni (dissociation of old karmas in increasing geometrical progression) he causes innumerable fold times of karmas' stock to become suitable for dissociation (Nirjara); this is Guna Shreni Nirjara. And Guna-Sankramana (transformation of Prakritis into one another) does not occur here, but occurs at some other place in Apoorva-Karana.