Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Introduction
Prologue
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)
  Glossary

X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers

 

 

In this way, Anivrittikarana takes place after Apoorva-Karana. Its period is equal to a numerable fractional part of Apoorva-Karana period. In it, after lapse of sometime and with aforesaid essentials, the Jiva performs Antar Karana,

 

(Antar karama: Operation of dislodging the due duration of Nishekas due for rise. Kimantrakarn. N.am ? vivikkhyakamman.an haitthimovarimatthideeao motoon.majjhai antomuhutmaitan.an tthidin.an parin.amvisaisain.isaign.bhaveekaran.mantarkran.midi bhan.n.dai

                                                         ------(Jeydhavala  a. p. 953)

 

i.e., he makes the Nishekas of Mithyatva Karma of one Muhurata period only to remain suspended which were due for coming into rise after the end of Anivritti-Karana period; he causes those atoms to get converted into other duration form. And after Antar-Karana, he performs Upashama Karana (subsiding operation). The Nishekas of Mithyatva Karma which are situated just above the Nishekas which have been suspended through the Antar-Karana operation, he makes them incapable of coming into rise. By this kind of process the Nishekas which were falling due for rise just after the last moment of Anivritti-Karana were suspended; at the time of rise of such Nishekas what Nishekas will come to rise in the absence of those suspended Nishekas? Therefore, in the absence of the rise of Mithyatva, first subsidential type of right belief (Prathamopashama Samyaktva) is attained. The eternal misbeliever does not have the existence of  Samyaktva Mohaniya and Mishra Mohaniya Prakritis; therefore, by causing the subsidence of only one Mithyatva-Karma, he becomes Upashama Samyagdrishti (one possessing subsidential type of true belief). And if some Jiva, after attaining right belief, again gets defiled then his condition also becomes similar to that of an eternal misbeliever.

 

Here arises a question- "Tattva-Shraddhana, i.e., faith in Tattvas was attained after verification, how can it end?"

 

Answer: For example, some person was given instruction. By verification, he acquired faith in it that a �It is so only"; later on, somehow, different thought arose, therefore, such doubt arose in that instruction - "It is this way or that way?" or �Do not know how is it?" Or considering that instruction to be false, contrary understanding was developed about it, then lack of faith arose in it and the faith in that instruction disappeared. Alternatively, earlier, he was already having wrong faith; in-between true faith was evolved due to deliberation on that instruction. But a lot of time lapsed after deliberation on that instruction, so by forgetting it, wrong faith, as existed earlier, again got evolved automatically. In this way, faith in that instruction disappeared. Or, earlier, he developed true faith but afterwards neither some contrary thought arose nor much time lapsed, but due to rise of related karmas and as per destiny automatically that faith disappeared and contrary faith arose. Thus, in many ways, true faith in that instruction finished. Similarly, some Jiva got the opportunity of listening to Jinadeva�s (omniscient's) preaching about the Tattvas, etc.; after verifying it, he acquired such faith in it that "It is so only"; later on, as described earlier, in several ways, the true faith disappears. This description is given in a general way, the minute details and intricacies are known in Kewaljnana (omniscience) that at this moment true belief is existing and at this moment it is not existing; because here the prime cause is the rise of Mithyatva-karma (faith-deluding karma). If its rise be there then other causes like thoughts, etc. may or may not be there; automatically true belief ends. And if its rise is not there, then other causes may or may not be there, automatically the true belief gets manifested. So, knowing of such sort of internal subtle state related to every moment, is not possible in the case of a Chhadmastha (non-omniscient); therefore, he can not ascertain the subtleties of the state of his own false or right belief. It is known in omniscience. From this point of view, the changing of Guna-Sthanas (stages of spiritual development) is described in Shastras (scriptures).

 

In this way, one who has fallen from true belief, is called a Saadi Mithyadrishti (a non-eternal misbeliever). For the re-attainment of true belief, he has also to undergo the process of aforesaid five Labdhis. The special point is this that here some Jiva has the existence of all the three Prakritis (atoms) of Darshan-Moha (faith-deluding karma), so, by subsiding the three Prakritis, he becomes a Prathamopashama Samyagdrishti. Or someone gets the rise of Samyakva Mohaniya (Prakriti that blurs slightly the right belief) and the rise of other two Prakritis (Mithyatva & Samyagmithyatva) is not there; he becomes a Kshayopashama Samyaktvi (true believer). In his case Guna-Shreni operation does not take place and Anivritti Karana is also not there. And someone may get the rise of Mishra-Mohaniya (Samyakva-Mithyatva), the other two Prakritis (Mithyatva & Samyaktva Mohaniya) are not found; he attains Mishra Gunasthana; no Karanas are found there. Such state is found in the case of a Saadi Mithyadrishti (non-eternal misbeliever) on disappearance of Mithyatva. Kshyaika- Samyaktva (destructive type of right belief) is attained by Vedaka-Samyagdrishti (true believer possessing Kshayopashama Samyaktva) only, hence, description about him is not done here. In this way, the duration of the state of Saadi Mithyadrishti is found to be minimum one middle Antar Muhurta (less than 48 minutes time is one Antar Muhurta) and maximum a little less than the duration of half a matter cycle, i.e., one cycle of quasi karmic matter.

 

Behold ! the peculiarity of Jiva's thought activities ! Some Jiva after attaining Yathakhyat-Charitra (perfect passionless conduct of subsidential type) in the eleventh Gunasthana, again by becoming a false believer, transmigrates in the world for a period of little less than half a matter-cycle and some other Jiva just after coming out from the state of Nitya-Nigoda and by taking birth in the form of man after disappearance of Mithyatva, attains omniscience within an Antar Muhurta. Knowing this fact, one should be fearful of degeneration of one's thoughts and should make efforts for improving them.

 

And if in the case of that Saadi Mithyadrishti (non-eternal misbeliever) the rise of Mithyatva is found only for a short period then his external Jainahood is not destroyed and disbelief in Tattvas is not discernible; and he again attains right belief even without deliberation or by some deliberation only. And if the rise of Mithyatva exists for a longer period then his state becomes similar to that of an eternal misbeliever. He even accepts and follows the Grihita Mithyatva (newly adopted false belief) also and wanders even in the Nigoda, etc. states of existence. There is no limit or measure of it.

 

And some Jiva, after falling from right belief (4th Gunasthana), reaches the stages of Sasadana (down- fall, state of 2nd Gunasthana) and he stays there for a minimum period of one moment and maximum period of six weeks (Avalis). It is not possible to narrate the condition of his thoughts through words. Some particular type of thoughts which are known in omniscience are found for a very short duration.  The rise of Anantanubandhi (intensest passions) is found there but the rise of Mithyatva is not there. So, one should know all this from the study of Agama (scriptures).

 

And some Jiva, after falling from right belief (4th Gunasthana), reaches the stage of Mishra Gunasthana (3rd Gunasthana). There the rise of Mishra Mohaniya (Samyaktva Mithyatva Prakriti) is found. Its duration is one middle Antar Muhurta only. Its duration also is very short, therefore, his thoughts also are known in omniscience only. Hence, it is perceived that as someone was given some instruction, he believes it to be true and untrue at one and the same time.  Similarly, that state in which belief and disbelief in Tattvas is found in one and the same time is called mixed state (of right and wrong belief).

 

Many people say- "For us Jinadeva (omniscient Jina) and other Devas, (deities) all are worshipable - such type of mixed belief they call Mishra Gunasthana; it is not so; this is clearly the state of Mithyatva (wrong belief). Even on existence of Vyavahara (conventional) form of belief true Deva (omniscient Jina) etc., Mithyatva (wrong belief) persists but in the afore said case even the ascertainment about true and false deity is not existent. Therefore, it is to be known that such person possesses Vinaya-Mithyatva. 

 

In this way, the description has been made about the false believers heading towards right belief. In this context, other related matters have also been discussed.

 

Thus, the characteristics of false believers of Jaina faith have been described.

 

Here various types of false believers have been discussed. Its purpose is this that by identifying these different kinds, if one finds any blemish in himself, then he should try to remove it and should evolve right belief. He should not become passionate by finding and seeing such blemishes in others, because one's own good or bad is caused by one's own thoughts & dispositions (Parinaamas). If one finds others interested in such discussion then one should benefit them also by giving discourses. It is, therefore, imperative to make efforts for improving one's own thoughts and dispositions; it is highly desirable to become a true believer by giving up all sorts of false convictions and perverse faiths (Mithyatva Bhavas), because the root cause of transmigration (mundane existence) is Mithyatva (false

belief); there is no sin greater than Mithyatva. 

 

On destruction of Mithyatva (false belief) along with Anantaanubandhi Kashayas (error feeding interests passions), the bondage of forty-one Prakritis (karmas) also stops, the Sthiti (du-ration of karmas) gets decreased to the limit of Antah Koda-Kodi Sagaras (within crore of crore Sagaras), the Anubhaga (fruition of karmas) becomes very less only, such a Jiva attains Moksha (liberation state) shortly. And due to the existence of Mithyatva, the liberation path cannot be attained even besides making many other efforts. Therefore, by all sorts of means, it is necessary to destroy Mithyatva totally.

 

[ Thus, in Moksha Marga Prakashak Shastra the Seventh Chapter Dealing with Characteristics of Different False Believers of Jaina Faith is Concluded. ]

 

(1) Dissociation of karmas from soul in geometrical progression is termed Guna Shreni Nirjara

 

(2) Naya= Stand-point, Pramana= Comprehensive knowledge,  Nikshepa=Installation.

 

*as one of the ten types of right belief and Aaja-Vichaya

** as a type of Dharma-Dhyana (virtuous meditation).

*** it is forbidden to raise any query in Jina's preachings; how is it so?

****Dravyalingi monk= The naked possessionless monks who have not attained right belief.

*****Pramana= Comprehensive knowledge (knowing a thing from all angles)

****** Naya= Standpoint (knowing a thing from some particular angle)

 

1The oneness of right belief, knowledge & conduct constitute the path of liberation

2Samayasara Gatha No. 254 to 256 and following verses from its commentary: