In this way,
Anivrittikarana takes place after Apoorva-Karana. Its period is equal to a
numerable fractional part of Apoorva-Karana period. In it, after lapse of
sometime and with aforesaid essentials, the Jiva performs Antar Karana,
Operation of dislodging the due duration of Nishekas due for rise.
Kimantrakarn. N.am ? vivikkhyakamman.an
haitthimovarimatthideeao motoon.majjhai antomuhutmaitan.an
i.e., he makes the Nishekas of Mithyatva Karma of one Muhurata period only to remain suspended
which were due for coming into rise after the end of Anivritti-Karana period;
he causes those atoms to get converted into other duration form. And after
Antar-Karana, he performs Upashama Karana (subsiding operation). The Nishekas
of Mithyatva Karma which are situated just above the Nishekas which have been
suspended through the Antar-Karana operation, he makes them incapable of
coming into rise. By this kind of process the Nishekas which were falling due
for rise just after the last moment of Anivritti-Karana were suspended; at the
time of rise of such Nishekas what Nishekas will come to rise in the absence
of those suspended Nishekas? Therefore, in the absence of the rise of
Mithyatva, first subsidential type of right belief (Prathamopashama Samyaktva)
is attained. The eternal misbeliever does not have the existence of Samyaktva
Mohaniya and Mishra Mohaniya Prakritis; therefore, by causing the subsidence
of only one Mithyatva-Karma, he becomes Upashama Samyagdrishti (one possessing
subsidential type of true belief). And if some Jiva, after attaining right
belief, again gets defiled then his condition also becomes similar to that of
an eternal misbeliever.
Here arises a
question- "Tattva-Shraddhana, i.e., faith in Tattvas was attained after
verification, how can it end?"
Answer: For example,
some person was given instruction. By verification, he acquired faith in it
that a �It is so only"; later on, somehow, different thought arose, therefore,
such doubt arose in that instruction - "It is this way or that way?" or �Do
not know how is it?" Or considering that instruction to be false, contrary
understanding was developed about it, then lack of faith arose in it and the
faith in that instruction disappeared. Alternatively, earlier, he was already
having wrong faith; in-between true faith was evolved due to deliberation on
that instruction. But a lot of time lapsed after deliberation on that
instruction, so by forgetting it, wrong faith, as existed earlier, again got
evolved automatically. In this way, faith in that instruction disappeared. Or,
earlier, he developed true faith but afterwards neither some contrary thought
arose nor much time lapsed, but due to rise of related karmas and as per
destiny automatically that faith disappeared and contrary faith arose. Thus,
in many ways, true faith in that instruction finished. Similarly, some Jiva
got the opportunity of listening to Jinadeva�s (omniscient's) preaching about
the Tattvas, etc.; after verifying it, he acquired such faith in it that "It
is so only"; later on, as described earlier, in several ways, the true faith
disappears. This description is given in a general way, the minute details and
intricacies are known in Kewaljnana (omniscience) that at this moment true
belief is existing and at this moment it is not existing; because here the
prime cause is the rise of Mithyatva-karma (faith-deluding karma). If its rise
be there then other causes like thoughts, etc. may or may not be there;
automatically true belief ends. And if its rise is not there, then other
causes may or may not be there, automatically the true belief gets manifested.
So, knowing of such sort of internal subtle state related to every moment, is
not possible in the case of a Chhadmastha (non-omniscient); therefore, he can
not ascertain the subtleties of the state of his own false or right belief. It
is known in omniscience. From this point of view, the changing of Guna-Sthanas
(stages of spiritual development) is described in Shastras (scriptures).
In this way, one who
has fallen from true belief, is called a Saadi Mithyadrishti (a non-eternal
misbeliever). For the re-attainment of true belief, he has also to undergo the
process of aforesaid five Labdhis. The special point is this that here some
Jiva has the existence of all the three Prakritis (atoms) of Darshan-Moha
(faith-deluding karma), so, by subsiding the three Prakritis, he becomes a
Prathamopashama Samyagdrishti. Or someone gets the rise of Samyakva Mohaniya (Prakriti
that blurs slightly the right belief) and the rise of other two Prakritis (Mithyatva
& Samyagmithyatva) is not there; he becomes a Kshayopashama Samyaktvi (true
believer). In his case Guna-Shreni operation does not take place and Anivritti
Karana is also not there. And someone may get the rise of Mishra-Mohaniya (Samyakva-Mithyatva),
the other two Prakritis (Mithyatva & Samyaktva Mohaniya) are not found; he
attains Mishra Gunasthana; no Karanas are found there. Such state is found in
the case of a Saadi Mithyadrishti (non-eternal misbeliever) on disappearance
of Mithyatva. Kshyaika- Samyaktva (destructive type of right belief) is
attained by Vedaka-Samyagdrishti (true believer possessing Kshayopashama
Samyaktva) only, hence, description about him is not done here. In this way,
the duration of the state of Saadi Mithyadrishti is found to be minimum one
middle Antar Muhurta (less than 48 minutes time is one Antar Muhurta) and
maximum a little less than the duration of half a matter cycle, i.e., one
cycle of quasi karmic matter.
Behold ! the
peculiarity of Jiva's thought activities ! Some Jiva after attaining
Yathakhyat-Charitra (perfect passionless conduct of subsidential type) in the
eleventh Gunasthana, again by becoming a false believer, transmigrates in the
world for a period of little less than half a matter-cycle and some other Jiva
just after coming out from the state of Nitya-Nigoda and by taking birth in
the form of man after disappearance of Mithyatva, attains omniscience within
an Antar Muhurta. Knowing this fact, one should be fearful of degeneration of
one's thoughts and should make efforts for improving them.
And if in the case of
that Saadi Mithyadrishti (non-eternal misbeliever) the rise of Mithyatva is
found only for a short period then his external Jainahood is not destroyed and
disbelief in Tattvas is not discernible; and he again attains right belief
even without deliberation or by some deliberation only. And if the rise of
Mithyatva exists for a longer period then his state becomes similar to that of
an eternal misbeliever. He even accepts and follows the Grihita Mithyatva
(newly adopted false belief) also and wanders even in the Nigoda, etc. states
of existence. There is no limit or measure of it.
And some Jiva, after
falling from right belief (4th Gunasthana), reaches the stages of Sasadana
(down- fall, state of 2nd Gunasthana) and he stays there for a minimum period of one moment
and maximum period of six weeks (Avalis). It is not possible to narrate the
condition of his thoughts through words. Some particular type of thoughts
which are known in omniscience are found for a very short duration. The rise
of Anantanubandhi (intensest passions) is found there but the rise of
Mithyatva is not there. So, one should know all this from the study of Agama
And some Jiva, after
falling from right belief (4th Gunasthana), reaches the stage of Mishra
Gunasthana (3rd Gunasthana). There the rise of Mishra Mohaniya (Samyaktva
Mithyatva Prakriti) is found. Its duration is one middle Antar Muhurta only.
Its duration also is very short, therefore, his thoughts also are known in
omniscience only. Hence, it is perceived that as someone was given some
instruction, he believes it to be true and untrue at one and the same time.
Similarly, that state in which belief and disbelief in Tattvas is found in one
and the same time is called mixed state (of right and wrong belief).
Many people say- "For
us Jinadeva (omniscient Jina) and other Devas, (deities) all are worshipable -
such type of mixed belief they call Mishra Gunasthana; it is not so; this is
clearly the state of Mithyatva (wrong belief). Even on existence of Vyavahara
(conventional) form of belief true Deva (omniscient Jina) etc., Mithyatva
(wrong belief) persists but in the afore said case even the ascertainment
about true and false deity is not existent. Therefore, it is to be known that
such person possesses Vinaya-Mithyatva.
In this way, the
description has been made about the false believers heading towards right
belief. In this context, other related matters have also been discussed.
characteristics of false believers of Jaina faith have been described.
Here various types of
false believers have been discussed. Its purpose is this that by identifying
these different kinds, if one finds any blemish in himself, then he should try
to remove it and should evolve right belief. He should not become passionate
by finding and seeing such blemishes in others, because one's own good or bad
is caused by one's own thoughts & dispositions (Parinaamas). If one finds
others interested in such discussion then one should benefit them also by
giving discourses. It is, therefore, imperative to make efforts for improving
one's own thoughts and dispositions; it is highly desirable to become a true
believer by giving up all sorts of false convictions and perverse faiths (Mithyatva
Bhavas), because the root cause of transmigration (mundane existence) is
belief); there is no
sin greater than Mithyatva.
On destruction of
Mithyatva (false belief) along with Anantaanubandhi Kashayas (error feeding
interests passions), the bondage of forty-one Prakritis (karmas) also stops,
the Sthiti (du-ration of karmas) gets decreased to the limit of Antah
Koda-Kodi Sagaras (within crore of crore Sagaras), the Anubhaga (fruition of
karmas) becomes very less only, such a Jiva attains Moksha (liberation state)
shortly. And due to the existence of Mithyatva, the liberation path cannot be
attained even besides making many other efforts. Therefore, by all sorts of
means, it is necessary to destroy Mithyatva totally.
[ Thus, in Moksha
Marga Prakashak Shastra the Seventh Chapter Dealing with Characteristics of
Different False Believers of Jaina Faith is Concluded. ]
(1) Dissociation of
karmas from soul in geometrical progression is termed Guna Shreni Nirjara
(2) Naya= Stand-point,
Pramana= Comprehensive knowledge, Nikshepa=Installation.
*as one of the ten
types of right belief and Aaja-Vichaya
** as a type of
Dharma-Dhyana (virtuous meditation).
*** it is forbidden to
raise any query in Jina's preachings; how is it so?
The naked possessionless monks who have not attained right belief.
Comprehensive knowledge (knowing a thing from all angles)
Standpoint (knowing a thing from some particular angle)
oneness of right belief, knowledge & conduct constitute the path of liberation
Gatha No. 254 to 256 and following verses from its commentary: