Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)

Nature of Sermons



Showing the right path of liberation to the mis-believers, mundane beings, is the greatest benefaction of them.  Even the Tirthankaras (omniscients), Ganadharas (chief monks) etc., render such type of benefaction only; Therefore, in this Shastra (Moksha Marga Prakashaka) also the discourses are given according to their sermons.


For clarifying the nature of sermon, some explanation is given here because if one does not identify or know the sermon properly in its true sense then he may follow the wrong path by believing otherwise.  Therefore, the nature of sermon is described.


In Jina's faith the sermon is given through four kinds of Anuyogas (branches of scriptures). Prathamaanuyoga (mythonomy), Karanaanuyoga (Aetiology & cosmology), Charanaanuyoga (Ethics or religious rituals) and Dravyaanuyoga (Metaphysics) - these are the four Anuyogas.


That branch of scriptures in which the life sketches (biographies) of great personages like Tirthankaras, Chakravarties, etc. are described, is called Prathamaanuyoga. And that branch of scriptures in which the Gunasthanas (spiritual stages), Marganas (quest-places), etc. forms of the Jivas and karmas and cosmology, etc. are described, is called Karanaanuyoga.   And that branch of scriptures in which the religious conduct, vows & rituals to be followed by householders and monks are described is called Charanaanuyoga, whereas that branch of scriptures in which six kinds of substances, seven Tattvas etc. and the science of self-nonself discrimination, etc. are discussed is called Dravyaanuyoga.


The Purpose of 4-Anuyogas


Now the purpose of these Anuyogas is being described:


The Purpose of Prathamaanuyoga


In the Prathamaanuyoga the Jivas are encouraged to follow the religion by way of describing the peculiarity of mundane existence, the consequences of Punya (virtue) and Papa (vice) and the conduct of the great personages, etc.  Even the persons having low level of understanding get interested in religion through it, because they do not understand the minute details but understand the worldly parables; their Upayoga (mind) gets engaged in them.  And in Prathamaanuyoga the description is found in the form of worldly tendencies only which they understand very well.  In the wordly stories of kings, etc., fostering of sins is found.  Here too, the legends of high persons like kings, etc. are found but their purpose is to detach persons from vices and to actuate them to practise religion.  Therefore, those persons, due to attraction of legends read and listen to them and then knowing the Papa (vices) to be harmful and Dharma (virtuous conduct) to be beneficial, they take interest in religion.


In this way, this Anuyoga is meant for the people of low level of understanding.  Parathama means  slow-whited mis-believers, hence the Anuyoga which is meant for them is Prathamaanuyoga.  "Such meaning is given in the commentary of Gommattasara�.


Pratham mithyadrishtimavrtikmtyutpannan va pratipadyamashritya prvritonuyogodhikar prathmanuyog --- (Gomattsar Jee. Pr. Tee.  Gatha 361-62


Further, if the Jivas having attained the knowledge of Tattvas read or listen to this Prathamaanuyoga, then for them this serves the purpose of examples.  For instance, "such Jiva knew that the Jiva (soul) is an eternal substance; the body, etc. are the external associations".  And in mythology the rebirths (transmigration�s) of the Jivas are described; those become the examples of that knowledge.  And he had learnt about Shubha (pious), Ashubha (impious) and Shuddha (pure/passionless) Upayogas i.e., conduct of the self and their consequences also.  In mythology the proclivity of those Upayogas (pious, impious and pure conduct of the self) and their fruition experienced by the Jiva is described, the same serves as an example of that knowledge.  Similar is the purpose of other descriptions.


Here the meaning of example is that he found similar happenings in the life of some Jiva which corroborated his knowledge about such Jiva; so, this became an evidence for such knowledge.


For example, a warrior gets highly encouraged in valor by listening to such stories of mythological personages in which the praise of warrior and censure of coward persons is found. Similarly, a religious person gets highly encouraged in religious practices by listening to such stories of mythological personages in which the praise of religious persons and censure of the wicked persons is found.


Thus, one should know the purpose of this Prathamaanuyoga.


The purpose of Karananuyoga


In Karanaanuyoga the Jivas are actuated to follow the religion through descriptions of the details of Jivas as well as of karmas and structure of the universe, etc.  The Jivas who  wish to engage their Upayoga (active knowledge) in religion, they get engaged in religion and become detached from vices by knowing and identifying the details of the Jivas' Gunasthanas (spiritual stages), Marganas (quest places) etc. and the details of the various kinds of karmas, their causes-conditions and fruits in different Jivas and hellish-heavenly abodes in the universe (three worlds).  And if the Upayoga gets engrossed in such thoughts then at once automatically religion (serenity) gets evolved and vicious tendency ends.  By its practice even the attainment of Tattva-jnana (true knowledge and belief of the Tattvas) takes place soon.  And he becomes a true description is found in Jina's religion only and nowhere else it is found.


And to such Jivas who study this Karanaanuyoga after attaining true knowledge of Tattvas, this appears to be the adjectival form of that (Tattva-jnana).  The details and specialties of these Jiva etc. Tattvas are found in Karanaanuyoga about which he has learnt.  There many details are described in their true (Nishchaya) form and many other details in conventional (Vyavahara) form being attributed to be so.  Many are of Pramana (1) etc. form relating to the characteristics of Dravya (substance), Kshetra (specialty), Kaal (time) and Bhava (qualities) etc., many other are described with the relativity of instrumental cause and dependence of Upayoga etc. - thus various forms of details are described.  By believing them precisely in to such Jiva engrosses himself in the study of Karanaanuyoga.


By the study of this Anuyoga one's Tattva-jnana becomes pure (faultless).  For example, someone was knowing that a particular object is a jewel but only on knowing the various specialties of that jewel he becomes a true assayer of the flawless (pure) jewel.  Similarly, he was knowing the Tattvas that these are Jiva, etc. but only on knowing the various details of those Tattvas he acquires faultless knowledge of those Tattvas.  On acquiring the faultless knowledge of Tattvas one becomes, of his own, a distinguished devout person.


Further, if he engages his Upayoga (active knowledge) elsewhere, then passions, etc. are increased and the non- omniscient's Upayoga does not remain incessantly concentrated or fixed on one particular object; therefore, the true believer engages his Upayoga in the study of Karanaanuyoga due to which the knowledge of substances as seen in omniscience is evolved.  There remains the difference of Pratyaksha (direct) and Apratyaksha (indirect) knowledge only.  There is no contrariness in grasping or knowing the Tattvas etc.


In this way, one should know the purpose of studying Karanaanuyoga.  Karana means formulae concerning to mathematical calculations; that book which deals with this Anuyoga (topic) is called Karanaanuyoga (aetiology).  In this Anuyoga the prominence of mathematical description is found.


The Purpose of Charanaanuyoga (Ethics)


Now the purpose of Charanaanuyoga (ethics) is being described.  In Charanaanuyoga the Jivas are actuated to follow the religious practices by explaining the different means of observing religion.  The Jivas who do not know as to what is beneficial and what is harmful for them and remain engrossed in sinful acts like injury, etc., are discoursed in such a way that they give up vicious acts and adopt religious practices. Knowing this those who are inclined towards religious practices they engage themselves in such religious practices which they can follow after listening to the details (rituals) of householder's and monk's religious rituals (duties).


By such practices passions become feeble and consequently so much is achieved that they do not suffer from miseries in bad states of existence but obtain happiness in good states of existence and by observance of such practices, the instrumentality of Jina's faith (religion) is maintained and in such state if the attainment of Tattva-jnana be destined, then it gets evolved.


And those Jivas who practice Charanaanuyoga after attaining the knowledge of Tattvas, to them all these observances appear to be in accordance with their passionless dispositions (Veetaraaga Bhavas).  On evolution of partial and complete passionlessness, such sort of householder's state and monk's state respectively is attained because the instrumental cause and effect relationship is found in these observances.  Knowing this and identifying the characteristics of the householder's and monk's religion (duties), they indulge in such suitable religious practices as is warranted by the degree of passionlessness (Veetaraagata) is evolved in them, they know it to be beneficial and whatever degree of passions (Raaga) persists, they know it to be worthless and believe total passionlessness to be the supreme religion.


Such is the purpose of Charanaanuyoga (ethics).


The Purpose of Dravyaanuyoga (Metaphysics)


Now the purpose of Dravyaanuyoga (metaphysics) is being described.  In Dravyaanuyoga the Jivas are actuated to follow the religion by describing the substances and the Tattvas (essential principles).  The Jivas who do not know and identify the Jiva (soul) etc. substances and the Tattvas and do not know the self-nonself to be different entities, are discoursed through reasoning, examples, logic and through Pramana (comprehensive viewpoint) and Nayas (partial viewpoints) etc. in such a way that they are able to grasp the true nature of Tattvas etc. and develop right faith in them.  By its regular study the eternal ignorance is removed. When the Tattvas etc., fancied or fabricated by the other (non-Jaina) faiths, appear to be false then the belief of Jaina's faith gets evolved and if one makes efforts for identifying their true nature then he may attain right belief in Tattvas very soon.


Further, if such Jivas who have attained Tattva-jnana, regularly study Dravyaanuyoga then all those descriptions appear to them to be according to their belief.  For example, someone has acquired some skill but if he continues to practice it then it remains in his memory; if he does not practice it, he forgets it.  Similarly, after one has attained Tattva-jnana if he continues to study Dravyaanuyoga which deals with it, then that Tattva-jnana persists, if he does not do so, he forgets it.  Or the Tattva-jnana which was attained in brief form, if becomes clear or lucid through different logic reasoning examples, etc., then there can be no laxity in it.  Moreover, due to lessening of passions (Raaga) etc., by this sort of practice and study, the Moksha (liberation) is attained soon.


In this way, one should know the purpose of Dravyaanuyoga (metaphysics).