Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)

Nature of Sermons



The Methodology of Exposition in Anuyogas


Now, the methodology of exposition found in these Anuyogas is being described.


The Methodology of Exposition in Prathamaanuyoga


In Prathamaanuyoga whatever main stories are, the same are described as they are.  And in them the relevant expositions pertaining to the topic under discussion are also given; some are described as it is and some are given according to the thoughts of the author of the book, but the purpose is not changed.


For example, on the auspicious occasions of the Tirthankara, Devas the Indras (chief gods of heaven) came to celebrate the function.  So this story is true and the Indras offered invocation to them which is described in this Anuyoga. Although the Indras offered invocation in different words and here (in prathamaanuyoga) the author has described it in some other words, but the purpose of invocation is not changed. Further, some conversation took place between some persons; there the words uttered were different, whereas here the author has used some other words, but the same purpose is maintained.  And the names of town, forest, battlefields, etc. used here are the same but, maintaining the same purpose, the description is found in less or more words. Other descriptions should also be known likewise.


Further, the relevant stories also are written by the authors as per their own thoughts.  For example, in Dharma-pariksha the story of the stupid fellows is found.  There is no such rule that the same story was narrated by Manovega but some tale fostering stupidity was narrated.  So, they have supported the same purpose.  Similarly, one should know elsewhere also.


Here someone may say, - "Untrue statements are not possible in Jain Shastras?"


Answer: That which fosters a different purpose is called untrue.  For example, " someone tells a person that you should say so".  he did not speak in the same words, but spoke with the same purpose; therefore, he is not called a liar.  If the rule be that the same words be used then, if someone had contemplated on renunciation in various ways, describing all that, would increase the volume of the book and if nothing is written about it then its concept will not be clear.  Therefore, in the context of renunciation, the authors will write descriptions fostering renunciation only in less or more words as per their thoughts, but will not write any thing fostering passions.  Here the purpose is not changed.  Therefore, it is not untrue.  In the same way, one should know elsewhere also.


Further, in Prathamaanuyoga, only the prominent things are supported.  For example, someone observed  fast; although its fruit was insignificant but he attained higher state of existence due to his other religious observances simultaneously.  Here such attainment is described to be the result of observance of fast only.  In the same way, one should know elsewhere also.


And as someone firmly observed the vow of chastity, etc., chanted Namaskar Mantra (obeisance to five supreme souls) and also observed other religious practices, his miseries came to an end and miracles appeared; so all this is not caused only by such religious practices but such (agreeable) events took place due to the rise of some other karma, nevertheless, such events are described to be fruit of observance of chastity, etc. only.  Similarly, someone indulged in some wicked act (and obtained hellish birth); so, this is not the result of that wicked act only, but owing to the rise of some other karma, he got birth in the lower state of existence or suffered from miseries, etc.  But it is described to be the fruit of that wicked act only.  Likewise, one should know the other examples.


Here someone may say �Describing such false fruit is not desirable; how can such statement be believed to be authentic?"


Answer: For the benefit of those ignorant persons who do not take interest in religious practices and are not afraid of wicked acts without showing more fruit of such acts, such descriptions are found. When the fruit of religion be described to be the fruit of sin, the fruit of sin be described to be the fruit of religion then it is false, but here it is not so.  For example, ten persons jointly do some work, there, if it is not wrong.  Or somebody's ancestors performed some act; if from one caste point of view it is described conventionally to be the work of one person only then it is not wrong.  Or somebody's ancestors performed some act; if from one caste point of view it is described conventionally to be the performance of their sons, etc. then there is nothing wrong.  Similarly, one event took place as a result of several virtuous and vicious acts; if conventionally it is described to be the result of one virtuous or vicious act, then there is nothing wrong.  Or whatever has been the result of any other virtuous or vicious act, if from the similar category point of view, the same is described conventionally to be the result of any other virtuous or vicious act only, then there is nothing wrong.


In preachings, statements are made at some places from conventional (Vyavahara) point of view and at some places from realistic (Nishchaya) point of view.  Here (in Prathamaanuyoga) the Upachara (superimposed) form of Vyavahara (conventional) practices are described.  In this way, it is authentic.  But one should not treat this to be corrected degree to degree.  It should be known that degree to degree description is found in Karanaanuyoga.


Further, in Prathamaanuyoga, if someone is found to be observing one particular conventional form of religious practice, he is said to be following the religion in to. For examples, those Jivas who are found not having any doubt in religion or craving for worldly enjoyments, etc., are said to have attained the right belief; but only by not having doubt, desire, etc. in any one particular religious aspect, the right belief cannot be evolved; the right belief is evolved on developing staunch faith in Tattvas; but here the real right belief has been superimposed in the conventional right belief and the conventional right belief, -thus by, "Upachara", (superimposition) the right belief is said to have been evolved.


Further, on attaining knowledge of one part (Anga) of any Jain-Shastra, the right knowledge is said to have been evolved.  But on attaining the knowledge of Tattvas, devoid of doubt, etc. perversities, the right knowledge is evolved. Here also the right knowledge is termed so by Upachara (conventionally) as stated above.


Further, if someone observes some pious conduct, he is said to have attained right conduct.  And if one has accepted Jaina religion and practices some vow in smaller or greater measure, he is called a Shravaka- a true believer householder observing small vows or partial conduct.  (In reality) on attainment of fifth Gunasthana (spiritual stage) only, one is called a Shravaka, but in the aforesaid manner conventionally (by Upachara) he is called a Shravaka. In the Shastra "Uttar- Purana" the king Shrenika is termed a supreme Shravaka, though he was a vowless (incontinent) householder; but because he was a Jaina so he is described so.  Likewise, one should know elsewhere.


Further, one who accepts Munilinga (possessionless necked monk state) without right belief and even if externally he is found with some blemish, he is still called a Muni (mink). Although on attainment of sixth Gunasthana etc., one becomes a Muni, but in the aforesaid manner, conventionally (by Upachara) he - the monk - with blemishes is called a Muni. In Samavasarana Sabha (omniscient's preaching arena) the presence of a particular number of monks is stated (in the Shastra); but all of them were not the true Bhavalingi Munis (true spiritual monks with right belief), but because of acceptance of external Jain monk's posture, all are termed as monks (munis).  Similarly, one should know elsewhere.


Further, in Prathamaanuyoga, if someone indulges in some undesirable act with religious attitude, even then he is praised.  For instance, Vishnukumar (a Jain monk possessed with super-natural power) removed the affliction of the other monks with religious attitude; but it was not desirable to indulge in this act by forsaking the status of a monk, because such an act is possible in  householder�s religion only and monk�s religion is higher than the householder�s religion.  Therefore, it is not praiseworthy to accept lower religious status by giving up higher religious status; but monk Vishnukumarji has been praised due to the prominence of Vatsalya Anga, i.e., affectionate feeling towards the coreligionists.  Under this pretext, it is not desirable for others to accept lower religious status by giving up higher status.


Further, (it is described that) a cowherd created hot atmosphere around a Jain monk by burning fire.  He did so out of compassion.  One should surely remove the Upasarga (affliction) caused externally by others.  But removing the natural Parishaha (disagreeable condition) of cold, etc. is the cause of arousing liking passions.  Therefore, such an act causes affliction (instead of removing it).  That is why the judicious persons do not make effort for removing cold.  The cowherd was an ignorant person; he did so out of compassion, therefore, he is praised.  But under this pretext, it is not desirable for others to indulge in such acts which are contrary to religious practice.


Further, the King Vajrakarana did not salute the King Simhodara and kept the idol of Jina carved in the ring.  Even the great true believers salute the kings, etc., there is no fault in it.  But disrespect is caused in keeping the idol in the ring, because no such adorable idol is possible as per set norms; therefore, this act faulty.  But he was not aware of this; out of religious affection he developed a feeling - "I will not salute anybody else".  Therefore he is praised. But under this pretext, it is not desirable for others to indulge in such acts.


Further, for the sake of getting a son, etc. or mitigating disease and other calamities, etc., some people built temples (Chaityalayas) and worshipped Jina's idol, etc.; chanted hymns and recited Namaskar mantra, etc.; but such practices destroy the Nihkankshita Guna (the virtue of desirelessness) and amount to indulgence in Nidanbandha types sorrowful concentration.  Because of inner inauspicious purpose, it causes the bondage of inauspicious karmas only.  But even being deluded, he did not worship false deities, etc. which are the cause of enormous and intense bondage of Papa karmas; considering this aspect, he has been praised.  Under this pretext, it is not desirable for others to adopt religious practices for temporal gains.  Likewise, one should know elsewhere also.


Thus there are found many such descriptions in Prathamaanuyoga; knowing their real sense, one should not get deluded.


Methodology of Exposition of Karanaanuyoga


Now the style of exposition in Karanaanuyoga is being described:  The description found in Karanaanuyoga is as known in omniscience.  Though all is known in omniscience, yet, only that which is useful to Jiva, e.g., the relationship of Jiva-karmas, etc. and cosmology (universe) etc. are described here in this "Anuyoga".  Even all details of them cannot be described, therefore, whatever could be possibly described in words and could be known and perceived in non-omniscient's knowledge, is described in an abridged form.  For example, the Gunasthanas (spiritual stages) are described from the viewpoint of instincts and dispositions of the Jivas; those dispositions being infinite cannot be described through words, therefore, by combining many dispositions into one category, fourteen Gunasthanas are specified.  And there are various ways of knowing the Jivas, but only main fourteen Marganas (quest-places) are specified. Although karmic matter (atoms) possesses infinite potency, yet, in them, by combining many atoms into one category, the eight types of main prakritis (karmas) and one hundred and forty-eight subdivisions of them are described.  And in the universe (3 worlds) many objects are found but herein some of the main objects with their details are described.  And Pramana (measure) is of infinite kinds; the Sankhyat (numerable) etc. three main divisions and further twenty-one divisions of these are specified.