Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)

Nature of Sermons



In the same way, one should know elsewhere.


Although the spatiality, time, qualities (modes) etc. of the substance are indivisible, nevertheless, with the object that the non-omniscient may also attain some knowledge of the substances, in Karanaanuyoga, time unit (Samaya), units measuring the degrees of quality manifested (Avibhaga- Practichchhedas) are described.  And one and the same substance is described by making divisions of different- different Gunas (attributes) and Paryayas (modifications). Although the Jivas (souls) and the Pudgalas (matter) etc. are separate-separate substances, nevertheless, through the instrumentality of relationship (bondage) etc. the Gati (state of existence) produced out of many substances, the Jati (category) etc. divisions are described to be of one Jiva only.  All this exposition should be known to be with the prominence of conventional standpoint (Vyavahara Naya) because details and specialties cannot be understood without Vyavahara (conventional divisions).  And at some places the description is found from Nischaya (real) standpoint also. For example, Pramana (numerical measures etc.) of Jivas etc. substances are described; the separate-separate substances are that much only.  One should know the same appropriately.


Further, many statements given in Karanaanuyoga are comprehensible by non-omniscient directly or through inference and those which are not so comprehensible should be believed as per Jina's commandment.  The embodied forms of human beings, etc., which are the gross and longer and longer-lasting combined modifications of Jiva and Pudgalas and the jars, etc. modes of matter can be known directly or through inference, but the degrees of knowledge, etc. and smooth-rough attributes, etc. which are described from the viewpoint of subtle changes taking place every moment, are known only by Jinas commandment.  Likewise, one should know elsewhere also.


Further, in Karanaanuyoga the description is not done according to the proclivity of non-omniscients but is done of the substances known in Kewal-jnan (omniscience).  For example, many Jivas contemplate on the nature of substances and observe vows, etc. but they do not possess the internal power of right belief and right conduct.  Therefore, they are called mis-believers and incontinent (vowless) persons.  On the other hand, many Jivas neither contemplate on the nature of substances nor follow vows, etc. and either indulge in other acts or remain asleep thoughtlessly, but they possess the power of right belief, etc.; therefore, they are called right believers and votaries (continent persons).


Further, some Jiva is found indulging more in passional acts but possess feeble internal-passional power; therefore, he is called a feeble-passioned person.  And some Jiva is found indulging less in passional activities but possesses intense internal passional power, so he is called a highly-passioned person.  For example, the peripatetic gods (Vyantaras) destroy the town, etc. by passions, nevertheless, they are stated to possess Peeta-Leshya, due to feeble passional power.  And the one-sensed, etc. beings are not seen indulging in passional acts, yet they are stated to possess Krishna Leshyas etc. due to intense passional power.  And the Devas of Sarvartha Siddhi are found indulging very less in passions but they are called incontinent because they possess more passional power.  And the Jiva of fifth Gunasthana indulges more in passional acts like business, sex, etc., yet he is stated to possess partial continence or conduct because of feeble passional power.  Likewise, one should know at other places.


Further, the activity of mind, speech and body of some Jiva is found to be less, yet he is stated to possess more Yoga (vibratory activity) because of power of attracting the karmas; one may be found indulging too much in external activities, nevertheless, he is stated to possess less Yoga due to weak power.  For example, though the omniscient is not having any activity of movement, etc., nevertheless he is stated to possess more Yoga (vibratory activity).  The two- sensed, etc. beings make movement, etc., yet they are stated to have less Yoga.  In the same way, one should know elsewhere.


Further, that which is not seen apparently, nevertheless, it is stated to be present there because of presence of subtle power.  For example, the true monk is not found indulging in any sexual activity but the inner instinct for copulation is stated to be present in him up to the ninth Gunasthana.  The cause of misery is not apparent in Ahmindra (self Gods), nevertheless, rarely, the rise Asata (pain-producing karma) is stated to be present there.  Similarly, one should know elsewhere.


Further, the Karanaanuyoga describes the right belief, knowledge, conduct, etc. religion with the relativity of subsidence, etc. of karma-prakritis and with their subtle power with reference to different Gunasthanas and it also describes the Jiva etc. Tattvas with their minute details and classifications, etc. which are the cause of right belief, etc.  Here is someone tries to make effort according to Karanaanuyoga, it cannot be possible; the main object of Karanaanuyoga is to describe the true nature of substances; there is not prominence of putting anything into practice. Therefore, one should follow the conduct as per Charanaanuyoga etc., due to which, whatever is to happen happens automatically.  For example, if one wishes to subside the karmas, how can he do it?  One should rather make effort for ascertaining the Tattvas etc., owing to which subsidential, etc. form of right belief is evolved of its own.  Similarly, one should know elsewhere.


In one Antarmuhurta (1) a monk falling from the eleventh Gunasthana, gradually becomes a false believer and again by ascending (the ladder of destruction of karmas) he evolves Kewal-jnan (omniscience).  Such subtle dispositions of right belief, etc. are not the subject of comprehension. Therefore, one should know the nature of substances as per the Karanaanuyoga but follow such conduct knowingly which is beneficial.


And in the Karanaanuyoga also, at some places, the exposition is found with emphasis on preaching, so that should not believed in its totality.  For example, making effort for injury, etc. is called Kumati-jnana (perverse sensory knowledge); study of scriptures of other religions is called Kushruta-jnana (perverse scriptural knowledge); always perceiving bad aspect and not perceiving good aspect is called Vibhanga-jnan (perverse clairvoyance)- all these are preached so for forsaking them.  From subtle point of view, all knowledge of a true believer is right knowledge. Similarly, one should know elsewhere.


And if somewhere general statements are found, the same should not be treated as correct degree to degree.  For example, the circumference is described to be three times of the diameter but minutely speaking it is somewhat more than three times.  Likewise, one should know elsewhere.


And, somewhere, the exposition is found from the predominance point of view, the same should not be taken as stated, in all respects.  For example, the Jivas of Mithyadrishti Gunasthana i.e., first Gunasthana and of Sasadan Gunasthana i.e., second Gunasthana are described as Papa Jivas (vicious souls), the Jivas of the fourth Gunasthana, i.e., vowless right believers, etc., are described as Punya Jivas (virtuous souls).  This is stated from the predominance point of view but minutely speaking both the types of Jivas may be found in smaller or greater measure having virtuous and vicious dispositions.  Similarly, one should know elsewhere.


In the same way, many other different descriptions are found; the same should be known appropriately.


Thus, the methodology of exposition in Karanaanuyoga is concluded.


Methodology of Exposition in Charanaanuyoga


Now the methodology of exposition in Charanaanuyoga is explained:-


In Charanaanuyoga, that aspect of religious conduct has been preached, in the manner, which is comprehensible by Jivas. In fact, the religion is the real form of liberation-path and its instrumental causes are conventionally called religion. Therefore, form the predominance of Vyavahara Naya (conventional standpoint) the kinds and subdivisions of various types of conventional religion (Upachar Dharma) are described in this Anuyoga, because in real aspect of religion (Nishchaya Dharma) there is no place for acceptance and renunciation of any thing and in the lower spiritual stages it is not possible for Jivas to give up rambling state of thoughts, therefore, here this Jivas is preached to give up irreligious acts and adopt religious practices.


Such sermons are given in two forms; the one form consists of adopting conventional practices only and the other form consists of adopting conventional practices along with real aspect of religion.


Those Jivas who do not possess the knowledge of Nishchaya (real aspect of religion) and even on preaching they are not able to grasp it, such false believers are preached only through Vyavahara (conventional path) when they show some interest in religion.  And those Jivas who possess the knowledge of Nishchaya & Vyavahara both or who might evolve such knowledge on being preached- such true believers- and those false believers who are likely to attain right belief shortly, are given sermons of conventional practices along with real aspect of religion, because the true monk (preceptor) is the benefactor of all Jivas.


The irrational (mindless) Jivas are not capable of grasping the sermon; the true monks have benefited such Jivas by preaching other (rational) Jivas to have compassion towards such Jivas.


Further, there are some Jivas who cannot attain the right path of liberation due to the  predominance of karmas; (the preceptor monks) have benefited such Jivas through the discourse of Vyavahara Dharma (conventional form of religion) by engaging them to adopt virtuous conduct, being the cause of sensual pleasures and good state of existence and by discouraging them from vicious acts, being the cause of miseries and evil state of existence.  Such Jivas are benefited to the extent to which miseries are reduced.


Further, the sinner is found possessing sinful instincts and attains evil state of existence where the instrumental cause of religion does not exist; therefore, traditionally he continues suffering from miseries only.  And the pious person is found possessing pious instincts and attains good state of existence where the instrumental causes of religion are found; therefore, traditionally he attains happiness or if the power of karmas gets reduced, then he may even attain the liberation path also.  Therefore, the preceptors encourage Jivas through conventional discourses to adopt virtuous acts and discourage them to give up vicious acts.


And the Jivas, who have attained the liberation path of are capable of attaining it, are benefited by actuating them to follow liberation path through preachings of conventional practices along with real aspect of religion.  In this way, the true preceptor monks render benefaction to all Jivas but if such benefaction is not availed by some Jivas then what can the true preceptors do?  Whatever benefaction is possible, they do it.  Therefore, the sermons are given in two forms.


In conventional form of preachings, there is the predominance of external activities only.  By following them, the Jivas quits the vicious acts and adopts virtuous acts.  There, according to the external activities, the inner thoughts also get released from intense passion and become of the order of feeble passion.  So, chiefly it is so but someone may or may not evolve feeble passion; the true preceptors, give sermons of observing external rituals only with the object of improving thoughts and the dispositions.


And in the sermons of Vyavahara (conventional path) along with Nishchaya (real aspect of religion) the predominance is of the thoughts and dispositions only.  Through its preachings, if someone tries to improve his thoughts by means of practice of Tattva-jnana and contemplation about renunciation, then one's external activities also get improved in accordance with thoughts.  On improvement of thoughts, the external activities also invariably get improved.  Therefore, the true preceptors predominantly give sermons of improving the thoughts.