In the same way, one
should know elsewhere.
spatiality, time, qualities (modes) etc. of the substance are indivisible,
nevertheless, with the object that the non-omniscient may also attain some
knowledge of the substances, in Karanaanuyoga, time unit (Samaya), units
measuring the degrees of quality manifested (Avibhaga- Practichchhedas) are
described. And one and the same substance is described by making divisions of
different- different Gunas (attributes) and Paryayas (modifications). Although
the Jivas (souls) and the Pudgalas (matter) etc. are separate-separate
substances, nevertheless, through the instrumentality of relationship
(bondage) etc. the Gati (state of existence) produced out of many substances,
the Jati (category) etc. divisions are described to be of one Jiva only. All
this exposition should be known to be with the prominence of conventional
standpoint (Vyavahara Naya) because details and specialties cannot be
understood without Vyavahara (conventional divisions). And at some places the
description is found from Nischaya (real) standpoint also. For example,
Pramana (numerical measures etc.) of Jivas etc. substances are described; the
separate-separate substances are that much only. One should know the same
statements given in Karanaanuyoga are comprehensible by non-omniscient
directly or through inference and those which are not so comprehensible should
be believed as per Jina's commandment. The embodied forms of human beings,
etc., which are the gross and longer and longer-lasting combined modifications
of Jiva and Pudgalas and the jars, etc. modes of matter can be known directly
or through inference, but the degrees of knowledge, etc. and smooth-rough
attributes, etc. which are described from the viewpoint of subtle changes
taking place every moment, are known only by Jinas commandment. Likewise, one
should know elsewhere also.
Karanaanuyoga the description is not done according to the proclivity of non-omniscients
but is done of the substances known in Kewal-jnan (omniscience). For example,
many Jivas contemplate on the nature of substances and observe vows, etc. but
they do not possess the internal power of right belief and right conduct.
Therefore, they are called mis-believers and incontinent (vowless) persons.
On the other hand, many Jivas neither contemplate on the nature of substances
nor follow vows, etc. and either indulge in other acts or remain asleep
thoughtlessly, but they possess the power of right belief, etc.; therefore,
they are called right believers and votaries (continent persons).
Further, some Jiva is
found indulging more in passional acts but possess feeble internal-passional
power; therefore, he is called a feeble-passioned person. And some Jiva is
found indulging less in passional activities but possesses intense internal
passional power, so he is called a highly-passioned person. For example, the
peripatetic gods (Vyantaras) destroy the town, etc. by passions, nevertheless,
they are stated to possess Peeta-Leshya, due to feeble passional power. And
the one-sensed, etc. beings are not seen indulging in passional acts, yet they
are stated to possess Krishna Leshyas etc. due to intense passional power.
And the Devas of Sarvartha Siddhi are found indulging very less in passions
but they are called incontinent because they possess more passional power.
And the Jiva of fifth Gunasthana indulges more in passional acts like
business, sex, etc., yet he is stated to possess partial continence or conduct
because of feeble passional power. Likewise, one should know at other places.
Further, the activity
of mind, speech and body of some Jiva is found to be less, yet he is stated to
possess more Yoga (vibratory activity) because of power of attracting the
karmas; one may be found indulging too much in external activities,
nevertheless, he is stated to possess less Yoga due to weak power. For
example, though the omniscient is not having any activity of movement, etc.,
nevertheless he is stated to possess more Yoga (vibratory activity). The two-
sensed, etc. beings make movement, etc., yet they are stated to have less
Yoga. In the same way, one should know elsewhere.
Further, that which is
not seen apparently, nevertheless, it is stated to be present there because of
presence of subtle power. For example, the true monk is not found indulging
in any sexual activity but the inner instinct for copulation is stated to be
present in him up to the ninth Gunasthana. The cause of misery is not
apparent in Ahmindra (self Gods), nevertheless, rarely, the rise Asata
(pain-producing karma) is stated to be present there. Similarly, one should
Karanaanuyoga describes the right belief, knowledge, conduct, etc. religion
with the relativity of subsidence, etc. of karma-prakritis and with their
subtle power with reference to different Gunasthanas and it also describes the
Jiva etc. Tattvas with their minute details and classifications, etc. which
are the cause of right belief, etc. Here is someone tries to make effort
according to Karanaanuyoga, it cannot be possible; the main object of
Karanaanuyoga is to describe the true nature of substances; there is not
prominence of putting anything into practice. Therefore, one should follow the
conduct as per Charanaanuyoga etc., due to which, whatever is to happen
happens automatically. For example, if one wishes to subside the karmas, how
can he do it? One should rather make effort for ascertaining the Tattvas
etc., owing to which subsidential, etc. form of right belief is evolved of its
own. Similarly, one should know elsewhere.
In one Antarmuhurta
(1) a monk falling from the eleventh Gunasthana, gradually becomes a false
believer and again by ascending (the ladder of destruction of karmas) he
evolves Kewal-jnan (omniscience). Such subtle dispositions of right belief,
etc. are not the subject of comprehension. Therefore, one should know the
nature of substances as per the Karanaanuyoga but follow such conduct
knowingly which is beneficial.
And in the
Karanaanuyoga also, at some places, the exposition is found with emphasis on
preaching, so that should not believed in its totality. For example, making
effort for injury, etc. is called Kumati-jnana (perverse sensory knowledge);
study of scriptures of other religions is called Kushruta-jnana (perverse
scriptural knowledge); always perceiving bad aspect and not perceiving good
aspect is called Vibhanga-jnan (perverse clairvoyance)- all these are preached
so for forsaking them. From subtle point of view, all knowledge of a true
believer is right knowledge. Similarly, one should know elsewhere.
And if somewhere
general statements are found, the same should not be treated as correct degree
to degree. For example, the circumference is described to be three times of
the diameter but minutely speaking it is somewhat more than three times.
Likewise, one should know elsewhere.
And, somewhere, the
exposition is found from the predominance point of view, the same should not
be taken as stated, in all respects. For example, the Jivas of Mithyadrishti
Gunasthana i.e., first Gunasthana and of Sasadan Gunasthana i.e., second
Gunasthana are described as Papa Jivas (vicious souls), the Jivas of the
fourth Gunasthana, i.e., vowless right believers, etc., are described as Punya
Jivas (virtuous souls). This is stated from the predominance point of view
but minutely speaking both the types of Jivas may be found in smaller or
greater measure having virtuous and vicious dispositions. Similarly, one
should know elsewhere.
In the same way, many
other different descriptions are found; the same should be known
Thus, the methodology
of exposition in Karanaanuyoga is concluded.
Exposition in Charanaanuyoga
Now the methodology of
exposition in Charanaanuyoga is explained:-
that aspect of religious conduct has been preached, in the manner, which is
comprehensible by Jivas. In fact, the religion is the real form of
liberation-path and its instrumental causes are conventionally called
religion. Therefore, form the predominance of Vyavahara Naya (conventional
standpoint) the kinds and subdivisions of various types of conventional
religion (Upachar Dharma) are described in this Anuyoga, because in real
aspect of religion (Nishchaya Dharma) there is no place for acceptance and
renunciation of any thing and in the lower spiritual stages it is not possible
for Jivas to give up rambling state of thoughts, therefore, here this Jivas is
preached to give up irreligious acts and adopt religious practices.
Such sermons are given
in two forms; the one form consists of adopting conventional practices only
and the other form consists of adopting conventional practices along with real
aspect of religion.
Those Jivas who do not
possess the knowledge of Nishchaya (real aspect of religion) and even on
preaching they are not able to grasp it, such false believers are preached
only through Vyavahara (conventional path) when they show some interest in
religion. And those Jivas who possess the knowledge of Nishchaya & Vyavahara
both or who might evolve such knowledge on being preached- such true
believers- and those false believers who are likely to attain right belief
shortly, are given sermons of conventional practices along with real aspect of
religion, because the true monk (preceptor) is the benefactor of all Jivas.
(mindless) Jivas are not capable of grasping the sermon; the true monks have
benefited such Jivas by preaching other (rational) Jivas to have compassion
towards such Jivas.
Further, there are
some Jivas who cannot attain the right path of liberation due to the
predominance of karmas; (the preceptor monks) have benefited such Jivas
through the discourse of Vyavahara Dharma (conventional form of religion) by
engaging them to adopt virtuous conduct, being the cause of sensual pleasures
and good state of existence and by discouraging them from vicious acts, being
the cause of miseries and evil state of existence. Such Jivas are benefited
to the extent to which miseries are reduced.
Further, the sinner is
found possessing sinful instincts and attains evil state of existence where
the instrumental cause of religion does not exist; therefore, traditionally he
continues suffering from miseries only. And the pious person is found
possessing pious instincts and attains good state of existence where the
instrumental causes of religion are found; therefore, traditionally he attains
happiness or if the power of karmas gets reduced, then he may even attain the
liberation path also. Therefore, the preceptors encourage Jivas through
conventional discourses to adopt virtuous acts and discourage them to give up
And the Jivas, who
have attained the liberation path of are capable of attaining it, are
benefited by actuating them to follow liberation path through preachings of
conventional practices along with real aspect of religion. In this way, the
true preceptor monks render benefaction to all Jivas but if such benefaction
is not availed by some Jivas then what can the true preceptors do? Whatever
benefaction is possible, they do it. Therefore, the sermons are given in two
In conventional form
of preachings, there is the predominance of external activities only. By
following them, the Jivas quits the vicious acts and adopts virtuous acts.
There, according to the external activities, the inner thoughts also get
released from intense passion and become of the order of feeble passion. So,
chiefly it is so but someone may or may not evolve feeble passion; the true
preceptors, give sermons of observing external rituals only with the object of
improving thoughts and the dispositions.
And in the sermons of
Vyavahara (conventional path) along with Nishchaya (real aspect of religion)
the predominance is of the thoughts and dispositions only. Through its
preachings, if someone tries to improve his thoughts by means of practice of
Tattva-jnana and contemplation about renunciation, then one's external
activities also get improved in accordance with thoughts. On improvement of
thoughts, the external activities also invariably get improved. Therefore,
the true preceptors predominantly give sermons of improving the thoughts.