Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)

Nature of Liberation Path



Liberation through Right Effort Only


The question here is whether effort for liberation materializes according to destiny on advent of opportune time or on subsidence of delusion, etc. or through one's own persistent right effort.  If the answer be that in materializes on union of first two causes, then why do you sermonise us?  And if it materializes through right effort, then what is the reason that some are able to make right effort while others are not able to do so, although all listen the sermon?


Answer: Union of many causes takes place in accomplishment of one act.  So, where the effort for liberation materializes, there the union of all the three causes is found and where it does not materialize, there the union of all the three causes is not found.  Amongst the aforesaid three causes, opportune time and destiny are not any (achievable) entities.  The time (moment) of the accomplishment of an act is its opportune time and the accomplished act itself is the destiny.  And the subsidence, etc. of karmas is the potency of karmic matter, of which the soul is not the doer or destroyer.  And making of right effort for liberation is the duty of the soul. Therefore, the soul is sermonised to make right effort for liberation.


If the soul makes effort for adopting those means through which the accomplishment assuredly takes place, there the union of other causes is invariably found and the act is also invariably accomplished.  And if the soul adopts such means through which accomplishment of act may or may not materialize, there if other causes are met with, then the act gets accomplished and if not met with, then the act does not materialize.


By the adoption of means of liberation advocated in Jina's religion, liberation invariably takes place.  Therefore, that Jiva who makes effort for liberation according to the preachings of omniscient Jina, automatically gets association of opportune time and destiny and the adoption of such effort is itself the result of subsidence, etc. of karmas. Therefore, the one who makes right effort for liberation, invariably gets the union of all other causes and he assuredly attains Moksha (liberation)- this is to be believed.  And the Jiva who does not make right effort for liberation, for him, the opportune time and destiny are not there and because the subsidence, etc. of karmas has not taken place that is why he does not make the right effort. Therefore, one who does not make the right effort for liberation, to him other causes are also not available and Moksha (liberation) is not attained by him.  Such should be one's belief.


Question:  Many people listen the sermons but only some can make effort for liberation, some others cannot make -why is it so?


Answer:  The reason is that those who make right effort by listening the sermons, can adopt the means of liberation and those who do not make right effort, cannot adopt the means of liberation.  Sermonisation is merely a process of education; the fruit reaped is always according to the effort made.


Question: Dravyalingi Muni undergoes religious penances, etc. by renouncing the householder's life for the sake of attaining liberation.  Here, he has made effort but the objective is not attained; therefore, nothing is accomplished by making effort.


Answer: How could the objective be attained by contrary effort? The fruit of indulging affectionately in penance, etc., form of conventional conduct, is described in the scripture to be the auspicious bondage of karmas, but he (the Dravyalingi Muni) wishes to obtain liberation through such effort; how is this possible?  This is mere delusion.


Question: the cause of delusion, too, is the rise of karmas only.  How can effort be fruitful?


Answer: the delusion is removed on ascertainment (of truth) on the basis of right preachings, but he (the Drvyalingi Muni) does not make such effort, so the delusion persists. If he makes effort for ascertainment (of truth) then the rise of Moksha- karma (deluding karma) which is the cause of delusion also gets subsided and then delusion is removed, because, in the process of ascertainment, the thoughts gets purified which results in the reduction of duration and fruit on of Maha-karma.


Question: The reason why one's Upayoga (active knowledge) does not get engaged in the ascertainment (of truth) is also the rise of karma?


Answer: The one-sensed etc. beings do not have the power of thinking; in their case, the rise of karma is only the reason.  But he (the Drvyalingi monk) possesses the power of thinking, and ascertaining by virtue of Kshayopashama (destruction cum subsidence) state of Jnanavarana karmas, etc.; wherever he engages his attention (Upayoga), ascertainment of the same is possible.  But he engages his attention in the ascertainment of other things and does not engage it here (in the path of liberation), so this is his own fault.  There is no role of karmas in this.


Question: The obscurer of right belief and right conduct is Moha (deluding karma) how can right-effort for liberation be possible without its removal?


Answer: Not engaging one's Upayoga (active knowledge) in ascertaining the Tattvas is his own fault only.  And if through right effort one engages his Upayoga in ascertainment of Tattvas then, on destruction of Moha karma on its own, the right effort (Purushartha) for the path of liberation in the form of right belief, etc. materializes.  Therefore, chiefly one should make effort to engage one's Upayoga in the ascertainment of Tattvas.  And whatever sermons are given, they are meant for effectuating such effort (Purushartha) only, and by such Purushartha, the Purushartha of liberation would get effectuated on its own.


Further, the non-ascertainment of Tattvas is not the fault of any karma but your own fault only; but you pretend to remain faultless and want to put the blame of your fault on karmas, etc. Such misconduct is not possible for one who claims to obey Jina's commandment.  You wish to continue indulgence in sensual pleasures; therefore, you are lying.  Why would one put up such argument, if one has real urge for liberation?


Even when you do not seem to attain your objective in worldly affairs, you continue making effort in that direction, but here you do not want to make effort, therefore, it is concluded that you are praising the state of liberation by following others.  You do not believe it to be beneficial after ascertaining its true nature.  It is impossible that one may not make effort for achieving an objective which is ascertained to be beneficial.


Question: Whatever you have stated is true but the rise of material karmas (Dravya karmas) causes passions, etc. disposition (Bhava-karma) and (Bhava-karma) causes the bondage of Dravyakarma and again its rise causes, Bhava-karma -this has been happening since eternity.  How then the effort for liberation be possible?


Answer: If for all time, the bondage and rise of material karmas be found to be uniform, then it can be true, but due to instrumentality of Jiva's dispositions, the formerly bonded karmas too undergo the process of Utkarshana (increase in duration), Apskarshana (decrease of duration) and Samkramana (transformation) etc., which causes reduction and increase in their potency; therefore, their rise (operation state) also becomes feeble and intense.  Due to their instrumentality, the fresh bondage of karmas also happens to be feeble or intense.  Therefore, due to instrumentality of the rise of karmas, the manifestation of knowledge, etc. in the mundane beings, sometimes, is found more and sometimes less; sometimes passions like attachment, etc. become feeble and sometimes intense.  In this way, transmigration continues.


There, sometimes, the Jiva attains the status of rational five-sensed developed being, then the power of thinking through mind gets manifested.  Such Jiva sometimes is found having intense attachment, etc. and sometimes feeble.  There due to intense rise of attachment, etc., the indulgence in voluptuous acts only is found.  And due to feeble rise of attachment, etc., if the instrumental cause of external discourses, etc. through his own effort, then engagement in religions activities becomes possible and if the instrumental cause is not met with and he too does not make effort (for liberation), then he may continue indulging in other acts but with feeble feelings of attachment, etc.; so, in such moments, the preaching is efficacious.


Those one-sensed, etc. beings, who are devoid of thinking power, do not possess the knowledge of understanding the sermons and the Upayoga of the Jivas having intense attachment, etc., does not get engrossed in sermons. Therefore, such Jivas who possess thinking power and whose attachment, etc. passions have become feeble, if through instrumental cause of sermons adopt religion, then they are benefited.  Under such conditions only right effort becomes efficacious.


The one-sensed, etc. beings are not at all capable in observing religious acts; how can they make effort (Purushartha)?  And if a highly passionate being makes effort then such effort will be for sinful acts only,; the effort for religious acts is not possible.


Therefore, he who possesses thinking power and whose attachment, etc., engrossed his Upayoga effortfully in the ascertainment of Tattvas, etc., then his Upayoga gets engrossed there and then he is benefited.  if under such conditions also, he does not make effort (Purushartha) for ascertaining the Tattvas, passes the time recklessly, either he may keep indulging in voluptuous and passionate activities with feeble attachment, etc. or may keep engaged in conventional religious acts; then the opportunity will be lost and wandering in mundane existence only will continue.


Further, with such opportunity, those Jivas who continue the practice of engrossing their Upayoga effortfully in the ascertainment of Tattvas, their thoughts and dispositions will become purer, due to which the potency of material karmas will decrease and after sometime the subsidence of Darshan Moha (faith-deluding karma) will take place of its own; then the exact conviction of Tattvas will be evolved. So, his duty is only to continue the practice of ascertainment of Tattvas; by this means only, the subsidence of Darshan Moha takes place of its own; there is no role of Jiva in it.


And on subsidence of Darshan-Moha, the right belief gets manifested of its own in the Jiva.  And on evolution of right belief, such faith is evolved - "I am soul, I should not indulge in attachment (Raag), etc.".  But due to rise of Charitra Moha (conduct-deluding karma) the attachment, etc. are produced.  There, if the rise be intense, then he indulges in sensual objects and if the rise be feeble then he engrosses his Upayoga (active knowledge) effortfully in the religious acts and in the contemplation of renunciation, etc. due to its instrumentality, Charitra-Moha becomes feeble; in such state the effort (Purushartha) for accepting partial conduct (small vows) or complete conduct (great vows) gets manifested.  And by accepting charitra (self-conduct with vows) through his own Purushartha he increases the engrossment in religion; there, by purity of thoughts and dispositions, the potency of karmas becomes feeble, due to which purity increases further and the potency of karmas becomes more feeble.  In this way, he gradually destroys Moha (conduct-deluding karmas) then the thoughts and dispositions become absolutely pure (passionless); through them the knowledge obscuring, etc. destructive (Ghati) karmas are destroyed; then omniscience gets manifested.  Thereafter, effortlessly, he attains the perfectly pure liberated state (Siddhahood) by destroying the non-destructive (Aghati) karmas.