Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Introduction
Prologue
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)
  Glossary

Nature of Liberation Path

 

 

In this way, if one makes right effort in the presence of instrumental cause of sermons, then the destruction of karmas takes place.

 

And when the rise of karma (conduct-deluding karma) be intense then right effort (purushartha) is not possible; even one falls down from the higher Gunasthanas (spiritual stages of development); there, whatever be the destiny, the same happens.  But where the rise of karmas be feeble and right effort (Purushartha) be possible, there one should not remain reckless but should make effort attentively for achieving one's objective.

 

For example, a person is flowing in the current of the river; there, if the force of water be more, then Purushartha is not effective, even sermons are not fruitful.  And if the force of water be less and he makes effort for coming out, then he can come out, then he will continue flowing in slow motion and after, when the force of water increases, then he will go on flowing.  Similarly, the Jiva wanders in the world; there, if the rise of karmas be intense, then Purushartha is not effective, even sermons are not fruitful.  And if the rise of karmas be feeble, then if he makes effort to follow the path of liberation, then he can attain liberation.  He alone is sermonized to follow the liberation path.  And if he does not follow the path of liberation, then some purity of dispositions and thoughts may get evolved and later on due to intense rise of karmas he may get birth in Nigoda (most inferior state of existence of one-sensed beings) etc.

 

Therefore, missing the opportunity is not desirable.  Now from all angles, the opportunity is there; obtaining such an opportunity is difficult.  Therefore, the capable souls should practice the religion as is being preached by true preceptor.

 

 

                        The Nature Of Liberation Path

 

 

Now the nature of liberation path is being described:- On total destruction of delusion, etc. karmas, due to whose instrumentality, the soul became miserable by undergoing alien (impure) state, the evolution of absolutely pure state of the soul is called Moksha (liberation).  And the means or cause of the same is to be known as the path of liberation.

 

There, the causes (means) are of various types.  1. Some causes are such without which the act cannot be accomplished and on whose existence, the act may or may not be accomplished.  For example, without accepting monkhood, liberation can not be attained.  And 2.  some causes are such by which chiefly the act is accomplished but even without which the act may be accomplished.  For example, by observance of external penances like fasting, etc., chiefly, liberating is attained but Bharat Chakravarty, etc. attained liberation even without observing the external penances.  And 3. some causes are such by which accomplishment of the act invariably takes place and without which the act can never be accomplished.  For example, on union of right belief, knowledge and conduct, liberation can never be attained. Such are the causes; amongst them, the union of right belief, knowledge and conduct is invariably the path of liberation which alone magnanimously, and as a rule, is the means of liberation.  Amongst these right belief, knowledge and conduct even if one of them is not there, liberation path is not possible.

 

The same is stated in Tattvarth Sutra:-

 

Smygdarshangyancharitran.i mokshmarg ---  (Tatvarth sutra  1/1)

 

In the commentary of this Sutra (aphorism) it is stated that here the word is a singular word which means that the union of all the three is one path of liberation; there are no three separate-separate paths of liberation.

 

Question: The vowless true believer does not possess the conduct; has he attained liberation path or not?

 

Answer: It is the rule that he will definitely attain liberation path.  Therefore, conventionally he is also said to have attained liberation path but in real spiritual sense, he attains the liberation path on evolution of right conduct (Samyak-charitra).  For example, some person decided to go to that town", but in reality, only on moving in the path, the act of going will be established.  Similarly, the vowless true believer has acquired faith in the passionless liberation path, therefore, conventionally he is said to be the treader� of liberation path, but in reality, liberation path will be attained only on evolution of passionless state. Further in Pravachanasara also, it is stated that liberation path is evolved only on the union of all the three (right belief, knowledge and conduct) therefore, it should be known that without acquiring right belief and knowledge of Tattvas, by mere lessening of attachment, etc. (passions), the liberation path is not attained and without lessening of passions-attachment, etc., even on acquiring the right belief and knowledge also, the liberation path is not attained; only on the union of all the three, the real liberation path is evolved.

 

Now these are being described through the process of Nirdesha (nomenclature), Lakshan Nirdesha (characteristics)- and Pariksha (analysis) hereunder:

 

There, "the union of right belief, right knowledge and right conduct constitutes the path to liberation"- such nomenclature is called Nirdesha.

 

And that which is devoid of (the fault of) Ati-uvyapti, Auyapti and Asambhava and by which these are identified is called Lakshana and its nomenclature with specification is called Lakshan-Nirdesha.

 

There, that which is to be identified is called Lakshya (objective); excepting it, all other things are called Alakshya (non-objective).  Stating that characteristic to be the characteristic of a thing which is found in both Lakshya (related thing) and Alakshya (unrelated thing) is called Ati- vyapti.  For example, stating "immateriality" to be the characteristic of the soul; but immateriality characteristic is found in both the related thing, i.e., soul and unrelated thing, i.e., space substance, etc., therefore, such characteristic (of soul) is called Ati-vyapti.  By identifying the soul through this characteristic, even the non-soul substances like space, etc. would also be included amongst souls; this fault will be there.

 

Further, stating such characteristic to be the characteristic which is found in some related things and is not found in other related things is called Auyapti.  For example, omniscience be stated to be the characteristic of the soul; but omniscience is found manifested in some souls and not found manifested in other souls; therefore, this is an Avyapti characteristic.  By identifying the soul through this characteristic, the non-omniscient souls will not be included in the category of souls.  This fault will be there.

 

Further, stating that characteristic to be characteristic of the objective which is not at all found in that objective is called Asambhava (impossibility).  For example, stating to be the characteristic of the soul; this is contradictory to direct comprehension, etc. because this is an Asambhava, impossible characteristic, even matter, etc. (insentient things) would be included in souls and soul would become non-soul.  This fault will be there.

 

Thus, if the Lakshana (characteristic) is contaminated with Ativyapti, Avayapti and Asambhava (fault), it is a perverse characteristic (Lakshanaabhasa).  And that characteristic which is found in all related objectives and not found in any unrelated objectives, is called the true Lakshana (characteristic). For example, soul's specific characteristic is Chaitanya (sentience), so this characteristic is definitely found present in all souls but is not at all found in any non-soul; therefore, this is the true characteristic. By identifying the soul through this characteristic, the correct knowledge of soul-non-soul is obtained; there lies no fault.  In this way, the nature of characteristic is explained.

 

Now the true characteristic of right belief, etc., is being described:

 

True Characteristic of Right belief  (Samyagdarshan)

 

The belief in Jiva etc. Tattvarthas (substances with their true character) devoid of perverse ascertainment is the characteristic of right belief. (1) Jiva (soul), (2) Ajiva (non-soul), (3) Asrava (influx with impure thought activity), (4) bandha (bondage of karmas), (5) Samvara (stoppage of influx with emergence of pure thought activity), (6) Nirjara (partial dissociation of karmas with increase in purity of thought activity) and (7) Moksha (complete dissociation of karmas with manifestation of perfect purity -these are the seven Tattvarthas. Their belief- " It  is so only and not otherwise" - such conviction is Tattvarth-Shraddhana (belief of Tattvarthas) and such right belief which is devoid of perverse grasping and understanding is right belief (Samyag Darshan).

 

Her for the negation of perverse conception, the word Samyak (means right or true) is stated because the word Samyak stands for commendation.  Only after removal of perverse conviction in belief, commendation is possible.

 

Question:  What is the purpose of using two words here Tattva and Artha?

 

Answer: The word Tat (means `that') is used in context of the word Yat (means `which'), hence that which is being talked of is called Tat and its quality or nature is called Tattva; because Tasyabhavastattvam- such is the compound formation of the word Tattva.  And that which is being comprehended, such substances along with their true nature is called right belief (Samyag Darshan).  Here, if only belief of the quality (Tattva) was considered, then without the belief of that substance whose quality is being considered, mere belief of its quality is not efficacious.  And if the belief of the substances alone was considered then without the belief of it's quality, the belief of the substance is also not efficacious.

 

For example, someone may be having the faith of knowledge, perception, color, etc.- this is knowledge, this is whiteness- such belief be there but knowledge and perception is the nature of the soul, "I am soul; and color, etc. is the nature of the matter, the matter is a distinctly separate substance from me"- if such belief of the substance is not attained, then mere belief is acquired but if the belief of the true nature of the soul, as it really is, is not acquired then without the belief of its quality, the mere belief of the substance also is not efficacious.  Therefore, the belief of the substance along with its qualities alone is efficacious.  Or the Jiva etc. are also termed by both the words Tattva and Artha; therefore, Tattavama- varthastattvartha, i.e., the Tattva is also the Artha, their belief is Samyagdarshan (right belief).

 

With this meaning, at some places- Tattva-shraddhana (belief of qualities) is called right belief and at other places Padartha Shraddhana (belief of substances) is called right belief.  So, one should not understand any contradiction there.  This is the purpose of stating the two words tattva and Artha.