Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Passions
About This Book (Translator's Prelude)
Peculiarity of Jainism
Introduction
Prologue
Nature of Mundane Existence
  Miseries of Mundane Existence and Bliss of Liberation 
  Exposition of False Belief Knowledge and Conduct
  Analytical study of different religions
  Refutation of False Deity-Preceptor-Religion
  X-ray of Jaina-misbelievers
  Nature of Sermons
  Nature of Liberation Path
  Nature of Noble Peaceful Death
  Rahasyapoorna Chitthi (Spiritual Letter)
  Glossary

Nature of Liberation Path

 

 

What is Kshayopashama?  The same is being explained here:-

 

Out of the three Prakritis of Darshan Mohaniya, whatever is the fruition (potency) of Mithyatva-Prakriti, its infinitesimal part is of Mohaniya.  In these, the Samyaktva Mohaniya Prakriti is Desha Ghati (causing partial destruction); even on its rise, the right belief (Samyaktva) is not destroyed.  That (Prakriti) which causes some foulness but can not destroy totally, is called Desha Ghati.

 

And where the Nishekas (atoms) of Mithyatva and Mishra Mithyatva, capable of coming into rise in the present moment, are shedded out even without their coming into rise state, is to be known as Kshaya (destruction); and the same Nishekas capable of coming into rise in future moments, if found existing (in Satta) is termed as Upashama (subsidence) and the rise of Samyaktva Mohaniya is found- the existence of such a state is called the Kshayopashama (destruction cum subsidence of Darshan Mohaniya).  Therefore, the belief of Tattvarthas which has foulness, is Kshayopashama Samyaktva.

 

The nature of such minute state of foulness, which is found here, is known by the omniscient Jina only.  For the sake of illustration, the nature of foulness is explained through waveredness, impurity and lack of firmness.  There, although conventionally he has ascertainment of true Deva etc. but the existence of such type of waveredness that "this Arhanta Deva etc. is mine and that Arhanta Deva is of others", rise of doubt, etc., is impurity.  This Lord Shantinath bestows peace, etc. feeling is called lack of firmness.  Such examples are given merely conventionally; but there is no such rule.  Whatever, foulness is found assuredly in Kshayopashama Samyaktva is known by the omniscients only. One should know this much that some sort of foulness is found in his belief of Tattvarthas.  Therefore, this Samyaktva is of one kind only.  There is no subdivision in it.

 

The specialty is this that at the time of readiness for evolution of Kshayika Samyaktva, where during the period of one Antar Muhurta only he destroys the prakriti of Mithyatva, there remains the existence (Satta) of two Prakritis only; later on, he destroys Mishra Mohaniya also, there remains the existence (Satta) of one Samyaktva Mohaniya only.  Then, afterwards he does not perform the Kandakaghata(1) etc. operation of Samyaktva Mohaniya; there he gets the name of Krit-kritya Vedaka Samyagdrishti (the true believer whose objective is fulfilled).

 

Further, the name of this Kshayopashama Samyaktva itself is Vedaka Samyaktva.  Where it is described from the prominence of Mithyatva and Mishra-Mohaniya point of view, there it is termed Kshayopashama Samyaktva.  And where it is described from the prominence of Samyaktva-Mohaniya, there it is termed as Vedaka Samyaktva.  These two names are simply for the sake of description.  There is no difference in their nature. Further, this Kshayopashama-Samyaktva is found existing from the fourth up to the seventh Gunasthana.  Thus, the nature of Kshayopashama Samyaktva has been explained.

 

Further, the totally pure belief of Tattvarthas, which is evolved on the complete destruction of all the Nishekas of all the three Prakritis, is called Kshayika Samyaktva.  So, this is attained by Kshayopashama Samyaktva) in any of the four Gunasthanas, i.e., from fourth to seventh Gunasthana.

 

How is it attained?  The same is explained.  There, first by means of three Karanas he conversts the atoms of Mithyatva into Mishra Mohaniya and Samyaktva-Mohaniya form and then sheds them out.  By this way, he destroys the existence (Satta) of Mithyatva and then he converts the atoms of Mishra Mohaniya into Samyaktva Mohaniya and then sheds them out; in this way, Mishra-Mohaniya is destroyed.  And then Nishekas of Samyaktva Mohaniya shed out by coming into rise state; if its Sthiti duration, etc. be very long, then he reduces it by Sthitikandaka process, etc.  Where the sthiti (duration) remains only of one Antar Muhurta then he becomes a Krit- kritya Vedaka Samyagdrishti.  Further, successively by destroying these Nishekas, he becomes a Kshayika Samyag drishti (true believer possessing destruction- form of pure belief)

 

So, this (Kshayika Samyaktva) is pure owing to the destruction of the opponent karma (Darshan Mohaniya) and is passionless owing to destruction of intensest passion with false belief.  This is never destroyed.  From the moment it is evolved, it remains existing for ever even in the liberated state of Siddhas.  Thus the nature (differntia) of Kshayika Samyaktva (destruction form of right belief) has been explained.  Such are the three kinds of Samyaktvas.

 

Further, on evolution of Samyaktva the intensest type of passion (Anantaaanubandhi Kashaya) gets changed into two forms.  Either it takes the form of Aprashasta Upashama (inauspicious subsidence) or Visanyojana (conversation into Aprathyakhyan etc. forms of intenser passions).

 

There, the subsidence which is caused by subsidential process (Upashama-Vidhana) through Karanas (attainment of Karana- labdhi) is called Prashasta Upashama (auspicious subsidence). The absence of Udaya (rise) is called Aprashasta Upashama (inauspicious subsidence).  So, in the case of Anantaanubandhi (intensest passion), the Prashasta Upashama is not at all possible, but it is possible in the case of other Prakritis of Mohaniya.  Its Aprashasta Upashama only takes place.

 

Further, through the process of three Karanas, the transformation of the atoms of Anantanubandhi (intensest passion) in the form of other Prakritis of Charita Moha and thus destruction of its existence, is called Visanyojana (transformation).

 

In Prathamopashama Samyaktva, only the inauspicious subsidence of Anantanubandhi takes place.  And after Visanyojana of Anantaanubandhi only the Dwiteeyopashama Samyaktva (second type of subsidential right belief) is attained.  Some Acharya state this to be a rule and some others do no state it to be a rule.  And in the state of Kshayopashama Samyaktva, in the case of some Jivas, Aprashasta Upashama takes place and in the case if some other Jivas Visanyojana (transformation) is caused.  but Kshayika Samyaktva is evolved only after Visanyojana of Anantaanubandhi.

 

Here the specific point to be noted is that in the cases of Upashama and Kshayopasham types of true believers, the destruction of existence of Anantanubhandhi was caused through Visanyojana (transformation).  If he again falls in Mithyatva state, then the bondage of Anantaanubandhi is caused.  Then the recurrence of its existence takes place. And the Kshayika Samyagdrishti does not fall in Mithyatva state; therefore, the recurrence of the existence of Anataanubandhi is never found in his case.

 

Question:  Anantaanubandhi is the Prakriti of Charitra Moha (conduct-deluding karma), so, it destroys the Charitra (conduct).  How is the destruction of Samyaktva (right belief) possible by this Prakriti?

 

Answer:  In the state of rise of Anantaanubandhi, anger, etc. dispositions are produced, (but) disbelief in Tattvas is not caused.  Therefore, Anantaanubandhi destroys the conduct only, does not destroy Samyaktva (right belief).  So, in reality, it is like this only but the types of anger, etc. passion which is caused due to the rise of Anantaanubandhi, of the same form is not caused on evolution of Samyaktva (right belief)- such instrumental cause and effect relationship is found.  For instance, the destroyer of Trasa state (mobile name karma) is the Sthavara Prakriti (immobile name karma) only; but on attainment of Trasa state even the rise of the Ekendriyajati-Prakriti (one-sensed type of name karma) is not found.  Therefore, conventionally even if the one-sensed type of Prakriti is stated to be the destroyer of Trasa state, then there lies no fault.  Similarly, the destroyer of Samyaktva is the Darshan Moha (faith-deluding karma) but on evolution of Samyaktva even the rise of Anantaanubandhi is not found; therefore, conventionally even if Anantaanubandhi is stated to be the destroyer of Samyaktva, then there lies no fault.

 

Question:  Anantaanubandhi also destroys conduct (Charitra) only, then on its disappearance evolution of some conduct should be stated. Why is incontinence stated to be existing in Asanyat Gunasthana (state of vowless right belief)?

 

Answer: The Anataanubandhi etc. kinds are not from the intense or feeble passions point of view, because whether indulgence is found in intense passion or feeble passion, the rise of Anataanubandhi, etc., all the four types of passions, is found simultaneously. There are the highest Sparddhakas of all the four types of passions are stated to be uniform.

 

Here the specific point is that, that type of intense rise of Apratyakhyana, etc., which is found in the absence of Anantaanubandhi, the same type is not found on its disappearance. Likewise, that type of intense rise of Pratyakhyana and Sanjwalana type of passion which is found on its disappearance. And the intense rise of Sanjwalana which is found in the presence of Pratyakhyana, the same degree of intense rise is not found when t (Sanjwalana) alone is found existing.  Therefore, on disappearance of Anantaanubandhi, although passions become somewhat feeble, yet that degree of feebleness is not evolved owing to which the corresponding state of soul may be given the name of Charitra (conduct). Because the degrees of intensity & feebleness in passions are of innumerable types. In them, the posterior states of passions are less intense as compared to the anterior states, but conventionally all these states of passions are categorized in three limits. Most of the earlier states are stated to be of incontinent form. Many of the states found thereafter are stated to be of partial continence (Desha Sanyama) form and the states found thereafter are stated to be of Sakal Sanyama-complete continence form. In all the aforesaid states of passions, those which are found from the first Gunasthana up to the fourth Gunasthana, all are of incontinence (Asanyama) form only. Therefore, in spite of feeble states of passions, the corresponding states of the soul cannot be named as states of Charitra (conduct or continence).

 

Although from realistic point of view, the reduction in passion amounts to part evolution of conduct (Charitra), nevertheless, from conventional point of view, where such reduction of passions is found whereby one accepts Shravaka Sharma (partial c & vows found in the householder's state) or Muni Dharma (complete continence & vows found in the monk's state)-such state only is regarded as Charitra (conduct). Such degrees of reduction in passions is not found in an incontinent person. Therefore, here (from first to fourth Gunasthana) incontinence exists. In spite of the states of intensity and feebleness in passions, as form the Pramatta Gunasthana onwards everywhere the state of the soul is called the state of soul is called the state of Asanyama (incontinence only. It is to be noted that in all these states, the degree of incontinence is not uniform.

 

Question: Anantaanubandhi does not destroy Samyaktva (right belief), then on its rise, how one attains the state of Sasadana Gunasthana after falling form the state of Samyaktva (right belief)?

 

Answer:  The Anataanubandhi etc. kinds are not from the intense or feeble passions point of view, because whether indulgence is found in intense passion or feeble passion, the rise of Anantaanubandhi, etc., all the four types of passions, is found simultaneously.  There the highest Sparddhakas of all the four types of passions are stated to be uniform.

 

Here the specific point is that, that type of intense rise of Apratyakhyana, etc., which is found in the absence of Anantaanubandhi, the same type is not found on its disappearance.  Likewise, that type of intense rise of Pratyakhyana and Sanjwalana type of passion which is found in the presence of Pratyakhyana, the same degree of intense rise is not found when if (Sanjwalana) alone is found existing.  Therefore, on disappearance of Anantaanubandhi, although passions became somewhat feeble, yet that degree of feebleness is not evolved owing to which the corresponding state of soul may be given the name of Charitra (conduct).  Because the degrees of intensity & feebleness in passions are of innumerable types.  In them, the posterior states of passions are less intense as compared to the anterior states, but conventionally all these states of passions are categorized in three limits.  Most of the earlier states are stated to be of incontinent form.  Many of the states found thereafter are stated to be of partial continence (Desha Sanyama) from and the states found thereafter are stated to be of Sakal Sanyama- complete continence form.  In all the aforesaid states of passions, those which are found from the first Gunasthana up to the fourth Gunasthana, all are of incontinence (Asanyama) form only.  Therefore, in spite of feeble states of passions, the corresponding states of the soul cannot be named as states of Charitra (conduct or continence).